INFLUENCE OF BUCK EXPOSURE, PROGESTAGEN TREATMENT AND SEASON ON REPRODUCTIVE RESPONSES IN GOATS


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background
1.2       Statement of Research Problems
1.3       Justification
1.4       General Aim
1.5       Specific Objectives
1.6       Statement of Research Hypothesis

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Goats
2.2       Goat Production in Developing Countries
2.3       Nigerian Breeds of Goats
2.3.1    The Sahel goat
2.3.2    The Red Sokoto goat
2.3.3    The West African Dwarf goat
2.4       Oestrous Cycle in Goats
2.5       Regulation of the Oestrous Cycle in Goats
2.6       Oestrus Synchronisation
2.6.1    Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)-based synchronisation
2.6.2    Progesterone based synchronisation
2.6.2.1 Short term protocol versus long term protocol
2.7       The “Male Effect” in Domestic Animals
2.7.1    Male factors influencing the response of the female
2.7.1.1 Buck Libido/Sexual Behaviour
2.7.1.2 Buck Vocalisation
2.7.1.3 Buck Age and Experience
2.7.1.4 Buck Olfactory and Chemical Cues
2.7.1.5 Buck Exposure Frequency and Duration
2.7.1.6 Buck Mating Stimuli
2.7.2    Female factors influencing the response to the male
2.7.2.1 Doe Dominance
2.7.2.2 Doe Age, Experience and Temperament
2.7.2.3 Doe Isolation Prior to Teasing
2.7.2.4 Doe Nutritional or Reproductive Status
2.7.2.5 Doe Parity and Maturity
2.7.2.6 Doe Hormonal Treatments Prior/During Exposure to Male Stimulus
2.8       The “Female Effect” in Domestic Animals
2.9       Influence of Season on Animal Reproduction

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Location of Study
3.2       Seasons of the Study Area
3.3       Experimental Animals and Herd Management
3.4       Experimental Progestagens/Exogenous Hormones
3.5       Experimental Design
3.5.1    Experiment 1: Influence of continuous buck exposure during progestagen treatment and season on oestrus behaviour and fertility of Red Sokoto goats
3.5.2    Experiment 2: Effect of limited buck stimulus and season on oestrus behaviour of progesterone-treated Sahel goats
3.5.3    Experiment 3: Influence of continuous buck exposure, season and dose of fluorogestone acetate on oestrus behaviour and fertility of goats
3.5.4    Experiment 4: Influence of male stimulus, dose of fluorogestone acetate and season on oestrus and fertlity responses of Sahel goats
3.5.5    Experiment 5: Serum progesterone levels of Red Sokoto does treated with different progestagens with or without continuous exposure to bucks
3.5.6    Experiment 6: Serum progesterone profiles of Sahel does treated with progestagens with or without limited exposure to bucks
3.6       Oestrus Detection and Breeding
3.7       Sample collection and hormonal assay
3.8       Data Collection and Analyses

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       RESULTS
4.1       Meteorological Conditions
4.2       Oestrus Response of Red Sokoto Does Treated With Progestagens and Continuous Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.3       Interval to Onset of Oestrus of Red Sokoto Does Treated With Progestagens and Continuous Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.4       Duration of Oestrus of Red Sokoto Does Treated With Progestagens and Continuous Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.5       Mounts Per Oestrus Period of Red Sokoto Does Treated With Progestagens and Continuous Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.6       Conception, Pregnancy and Kidding Rates of Red Sokoto Does treated With Progestagens and Continuous Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.7       Oestrus Response of Sahel Does Treated With Progestagens and 7-Day Buck Stimulus in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.8       Interval to Onset of Oestrus of Sahel Does Treated With Progestagens and 7-Day Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.9       Duration of Oestrus of Sahel Does Treated With Progestagens and Exposed to Buck in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.10     Mounts Per Oestrus Period of Sahel Does Treated With Progestagens and Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.11     Conception, Pregnancy and Kidding Rates of Sahel Does Treated With Progestagens and Exposed to Buck in the Dry And Rainy Seasons
4.12     Oestrus Response of Red Sokoto Does Treated With Progestagens and Continuous Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.13     Interval to Onset of Oestrus of Red Sokoto Does Treated With Progestagens and Continuous Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.14     Duration of Oestrus of Red Sokoto Does Treated With Progestagens and Continuous Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.15     Mounts Per Oestrus Period of Red Sokoto Does Treated With Progestagens and Continuous Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.16     Conception, Pregnancy and Kidding Rates of Red Sokoto Does Treated With Progestagens and Continuous Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.17     Oestrus Response of Sahel Does Treated With Progestagens and Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.18     Interval to Onset of Oestrus of Sahel Does Treated With Different Doses of Fluorogestone Acetate and Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.19     Duration of Oestrus of Sahel Does Treated With Different Doses of Fluorogestone Acetate and Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Season
4.20     Mounts Per Oestrus Period of Sahel Does Treated With Fluorogestone Acetate and Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.21     Conception, Pregnancy and Kidding Rates of Sahel Does Treated With Fluorogestone Acetate and Buck Exposure in the Dry and Rainy Seasons
4.22     Serum Progesterone Levels in Red Sokoto Does Treated With Different Progestagens With or Without Continuous Exposure to Bucks
4.23     Serum Progesterone Levels in Sahel Does Treated With Different Progestagens With or Without Limited Exposure to Bucks

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX
6.0       SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1       Summary
6.2       Conclusion
6.3       Recommendation
REFERENCES
APPENDICES



ABSTRACT

Intravaginal progestagens in combination with gonadotrophins have been used to synchronise oestrus in goats. Recently, the use of “biostimulation” in combination with progestagens is advocated because of ethical concerns regarding hormone residues in food products, environmental contamination and decreased fertility of gonadotrophin-treated does. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of buck exposure and progestagen treatments on reproductive responses in goats. Six experiments using Red Sokoto (RS) and Sahel (SH) goats were carried out in the dry (November to April) and rainy (May to October) seasons. In experiment one, the influence of continuous exposure to bucks during progestagen treatment and season on oestrus behaviour and fertility of goats was evaluated. The RS does were treated with Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) device with or without continuous exposure to aproned bucks for 14 days in the dry and rainy seasons. Does were bred on standing oestrus. The result showed that the male effect was comparably effective in inducing oestrus in goats during the dry and rainy seasons. Mean oestrus response rare was higher in buck-exposed than non-exposed Red Sokoto does in both the dry (87.5 % vs 52.5 %) and rainy seasons (88.6 % vs 50.0 %). Exposure to buck during CIDR treatment also improved oestrus response and conception rates in RS does. In experiment two, the effect of buck stimulus at the end of progestagen treatment and season on oestrus pattern and fertility of goats was evaluated. The SH does were treated with exogenous progesterone via a CIDR device with or without aproned buck exposure seven days to the end of progestin treatment in the dry and rainy seasons. The SH does were bred on standing oestrus. The results indicated that the male effect was more pronounced in inducing oestrus in SH goats in the rainy season than dry season. Mean oestrus response rate was higher in buck-exposed than non-exposed Sahel does in the dry (57.4 % vs 40.4 %) and rainy (60 % vs 45 %) season. In experiment three, the influence of buck exposure, season and dose of fluorogestone acetate on oestrus behaviour and fertility of goats was evaluated. The RS does received either 30 mg or 45 mg fluorogestone acetate intravaginal pessaries with or without continuous exposure to aproned bucks for 14 days in the dry and rainy seasons. Does were bred on standing oestrus. Oestrus response was higher in the buck exposed than non-exposed RS does in the dry (67.9 % vs 52.5 %) and rainy (80.0 % vs 71.1 %) seasons. It was concluded that dose of progestagens did not significantly affect oestrus response, time to onset of oestrus, duration of oestrus and mounts per oestrus period. Exposure of does to buck during progestagen treatment enhanced oestrus response and pregnancy rates in Red Sokoto goats. In experiment 4, the influence of male stimulus at the end of progestagen treatment, dose of fluorogestone acetate and season on oestrus and fertility of Sahel goats was evaluated. The SH does were treated with either 30 mg or 45 mg fluorogestone acetate intravaginal sponges with or without limited buck exposure in the dry and rainy seasons. Does were bred on standing oestrus. Oestrus response was higher in the buck-exposed does (70.8 %) than in the non-exposed does (50.0 %). Pregnancy rates were higher in the dry (60.9 %) than in the rainy season (45.8 %). It was concluded that dose of progestagens did not significantly affect oestrus response in Sahel goats. Teasing during progestagen treatment enhanced oestrus response and pregnancy in the goats. The dry season favoured pregnancy rates in Sahel goats than the rainy season. In experiment five, the serum progesterone profiles of RS does treated with different progestagens with or without continuous buck exposure was evaluated. Does received either CIDR devices, 30 mg fluorogestone acetate intravaginal pessaries, 45 mg fluorogestone acetate intravaginal pessaries, with or without continuous exposure to aproned Red Sokoto bucks for 14 days. Serum progesterone levels were similar in the buck-exposed and non-exposed Red Sokoto does across the days of treatment. In experiment six, the serum progesterone profiles of SH does treated with different progestagens with or without limited buck exposure was evaluated. Does received CIDR devices, 30 mg fluorogestone acetate intravaginal pessaries, 45 mg fluorogestone acetate intravaginal pessaries, with or without limited exposure to bucks. Serum progesterone levels were similar in the buck-exposed and non-exposed Sahel does across the days of treatment.





CHAPTER ONE


1.0                                                                      INTRODUCTION


1.1               BACKGROUND

The demand for food to feed the world‟s growing population has necessitated a higher demand for animal products such as meat, eggs and milk (FAO, 2013). Goats provide food for the growing population in the form of meat and milk, while goat skin and hair serve as raw materials in the clothing and leather industries (Morand-Fehr et al., 2004; Ajala, 2004; Boyazoglu et al., 2005). In Nigeria, goats play a very important role in the economy of rural dwellers, especially the women folk (Ajala, 2004; Odeyinka and Okunade, 2005). The potential importance of goat meat in meeting the protein requirement of Nigeria has been reported (Akusu, 2003; Ozung et al., 2011). The demand for meat from goat production may be met on a sustainable basis in Nigeria through intensive goat production, involving estrus synchronisation, which facilitates strategic breeding techniques for twice yearly kidding and feed-lot fattening of kids (Kawu, 2000). Several methods of oestrus induction in goats have been described (Abecia et al., 2012). There are hormonal (use of prostaglandins, progestagens, gonadotrophin, melatonin) and non-hormonal methods such as photoperiod control, flushing, buck introduction to stimulate reproductive cyclicity/buck effect (Mellado et al., 2000; Delgadillo et al., 2006, 2009). Although the hormonal methods are more effective, they are more expensive while the non-hormonal methods, though less effective, are cheaper and easy to apply in practice (Delgadillo et al., 2009; Ungerfeld, 2011). Non-hormonal methods are alternatives to the conventional methods of oestrus synchronisation (Martin et al., 2004a; Delgadillo et al., 2009). The most popular non....

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