FUL|E CODE OF CONDUCT (PULAAKU) AS PORTRAYED IN THEIR PROVERBS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0       Introduction
1.1       The History of Ful~e
1.2       Fulfulde (The Language of the Ful~e)
1.2.1   Fulfulde dialects
1.2.2 Fulfulde standard orthography
1.3       Statement of the Problem
1.4       Justification of the Study
1.5       Aims and Objectives of Study
1.6       Basic Assumptions
1.7       Scope and Delimitation
1.8       Significance of the Study
1.9       Conclusion

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction
2.1 The Ful~e Oral Literature
2.1.1 Ful~e folktales
2.1.1.1 Documentation of the folktales
2.1.1.2 Analysis of the folktales
2.1.2 The Ful~e oral songs
2.2 The Definition of Proverb
2.2.1 Universality of proverbs
2.2.2 Sources of proverbs
2.3 Proverbs in Some African Cultures
2.3.1 Classification of the proverbs
2.3.2 Proverbs as a reflection of culture
2.4 Ful~e Proverbs
2.4.1 Collection of the Ful~e proverbs
2.4.2 Analysis of the Ful~e proverbs
2.5 Culture
2.5.1 The Ful~e Culture
2.5.1.1 The Ful~e mode of housing
2.5.1.2 The Ful~e beliefs
2.5.1.3 The place of pastoralism in Ful~e culture
2.5.1.4 The Ful~e social activities
2.5.2 Code of conduct in some African cultures
2.5.3 Ful~e code of conduct (pulaaku)
2.6 Conclusion

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
3.1DataCollection
3.1.1 Primary sources
3.1.2Secondary sources
3.1.3Structured interview
3.1.4Unstructured interview
3.1.5 Sources of the proverbs used in the research
3.1.6 Problems of Data Collection
3.2 Data Analysis
3.3 Conclusion

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF PULAAKU IN FUL|E PROVERBS
4.0 Introduction
4.1Semteende (Shyness)
4.2       Munyal (Patience)
4.3       Goongaaku (Truthfulness, Honesty
4.4       Ngorgu (Courage)
4.5       En]am (Compassion)
4.6       Ne]]aaku (Dignity, Self-respect
4.7       Hakkiilo (Caution, Fore-thought)
4.8       Ndimu (Purity)
4.9       Marugo Na’i (Cattle Possession)
4.10 Conclusion

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
5.0       Introduction
5.1 Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
References
Appendix



Abstract

A proverb is an important aspect of orature that serves as an instrument of transmitting the cultural norms and values of a society from generation to generation. Ful~e are among the people who are blessed with proverbs. They attach much importance to proverbs and use them most often in their conversations to instruct, admonish or show mastery of the language. This instruction and warning are used in teaching the younger ones the etiquettes of life as contained in their code of conduct called pulaaku. The data was collected by random sampling of Mbororo‟en, Ful~e Na‟i and Ful~e Saare who live within the area where the central northern Nigeria and the Adamawa dialects of Fulfulde are spoken and was analyzed using a theory called Content Analysis. The research identifies proverbs that relate to the tenets of pulaaku: semteende (shyness), munyal (patience),   goongaaku    (honesty),   ngorgu   (courage),    en]am   (compassion),    ne]]aaku (dignity), hakkiilo (caution), ndimu (purity) and marugo na‟i (cattle possession)




CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION


1.0 Introduction


Fulfulde is the language of the Ful~e (singular: Pullo) who live mostly in West Africa. They are known in Hausaland as Fulani, in Sierra Leone and the Gambia as Fula and in Sudan as Fellata. They are found throughout West African sub-region roughly between 10th and 15th parallels and extending from Senegal, Gambia, and Guinea on the Atlantic through Mali, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon eastwards. They are also found in Benin, Ghana and Mauritania. They are the major tribe among African pastoral nomads (Arnott, 1985:1 and Tomfafi, 1991:293).

A proverb is usually a true statement of the folk obtained from experience. It is enriched with wisdom, morals, traditional views and commonly held ideas and beliefs of the society. It serves as a means through which a society preserves its culture and passes it to generations. A proverb is characterized with diversity of meaning. In other words, it can be subjected to various meanings. There is a surface or denotative meaning and a deeper or connotative meaning of a proverb. Whereas the surface meaning can be understood by many, the deeper meaning is normally understood and revealed through analytic study of the proverbs which requires deep thinking and reasoning. Study of proverbs requires knowledge of the culture of the society concerned. (Baldick, 2004:208, Amin, 2004:14, Amin, 2013:2 and Bugaje, 2014 :19-20)....

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