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Title page
Table of Contents

1.1       Background to the study: Communicating Development
1.2       Problems of Communicating Development
1.3       Statement of research problem
1.4       Aim of the study
1.5       Objectives of the study
1.6       Significance of the study
1.7       Scope of study
1.8       Outline of thesis

2.1       Introduction
2.1.1    Communication Theories
2.1.2    Participatory Communication Should development be evolutionary or revolutionary? Participatory approaches
2.1.3 Using participatory and diffusion approaches together
2.1.4    Cultural Sensitivity
2.1.5    Communication Strategies
2.1.6    Development Projects on Malaria
2.1.7    History of Malaria Control
2.1.8    Roll Back Malaria Initiative
2.1.9    National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP)
2.1.10  Communication Strategies of NMCP
2.2 Theoretical framework
2.2.1    Ecological perspective
2.2.2    Trans-theoretical model of change

3.1       Research Design
3.2       Sample Population
3.3       Data Gathering Techniques
3.4       Scope
3.5       Data Presentation and Analysis
3.5.1Content Analysis World Malaria Report Global Malaria Action Plan NMCP Documents NMCP BCC and ACSM strategies
3.5.2 In-depth Interviews with officials Sokoto State RBM Manager Sokoto South Local Government RBM Focal Person Kano state  RBM Manager Tarauni Local Government RBM Focal person
3.5.3 Field Interviews with respondents Respondents from Sokoto state Respondents from Kano state
4.0       Case analysis
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Determining why there has not being a significant drop in malaria figures in Nigeria
4.2.1 Lack of Institutional Capacity
4.2.2 centralization
4.2.3 Harmonizing policy with reality
4.2.4    Lack of social research
4.2.5    Inefficient partner coordination
4.2.6    Between the mosquito and the human
4.3       Establishing the role communication strategies play in planning interventions by NMCP
4.4       Analyzing the impact and limitations of existing communication strategies applied by NMCP
4.4.1    Over - reliance on mass media
4.4.2    Awareness creation and enforcement complement dialogue
4.5 Exploring value - added alternative approaches to development communication and how they can contribute towards successful interventions by NMCP
4.5.1    Desire for direct involvement
4.5.2    Sacrifices can only come from conviction
4.5.3    Demand Creation

5.1       Summary
5.2       Recommendations
5.3       Contribution to knowledge
5.4       Conclusion


This study examines the effectiveness of communication strategies deployed by the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) in fighting malaria in Nigeria. Over the years, these strategies have been more diffusion-based than participatory. Available documents indicate that the rate of success in the fight against malaria as championed by the agency has not been encouraging; leading to investigation of the reasons behind this lackluster performance. Communication was singled out as a major determinant of success for this project and this was investigated in Sokoto and Kano States, where qualitative processes were applied to assess the scope, depth and impact of the strategies employed through data analysis conducted on the documents of the agency and others relevant, in-depth interviews with four officials at state and local government offices of the NMCP and field interviews with 40 beneficiaries of the intervention in the two states. The findings of the study revealed that communication strategies play a key role in planning development interventions, but that these communication strategies need to be very effective to succeed. At the NMCP, it became clear that primarily, the diffusion-based communication strategies employed by the NMCP have not been very successful. This is because they do not engage the beneficiaries of the programme, despite the desire of the beneficiaries to have such engagement. Other secondary findings include the revelation of an apparent lack of capacity in the area of communication by officials and a template of activities that is skewed more towards some aspects of the programme than others. As part of the recommendations of this study, the need for the inclusion of participatory approaches among the regime of strategies employed by the NMCP was canvassed in order to establish the needed dialogue with beneficiaries and add value to the overall performance of the Agency in fighting malaria in Nigeria.



1.1              Background to the study: Communicating Development

After the second world war, developed countries came to the realization that the backwardness of the third world is a drag on their own development and they decided to initiate interventions in these countries with a view to bringing development to them. Interventions targeted the economic growth of these countries with the success of the developed countries as the model aspiration. Development was thought to be triggered by and was pursued through the diffusion of modern technologies, planned in the national capitals under the guidance and direction of experts. “Often, the people in the villages who are the 'objects' of these plans would first learn that 'development' was on the way when strangers from the city turned-up, frequently unannounced, to survey land or look at project sites” (Yoon, 1996: 37).

Building on the American scholar Daniel Lerner‟s influential 1958 study of communication and development in the Middle East and Wilbur Schramm‟s 1964 study on the role of media for national development, communication researchers assumed that the introduction of media and certain types of educational, political, and economic information into a social system could transform individuals and societies from traditional to modern.

The  term „development  communication‟  was  first  used  in the  Philippines  in the  1970s  by

Professor Nora Quebral to "designate the processes for transmitting and communicating new knowledge related to rural environments" (Bessette, 2004: 14). It eventually came to cover all those seeking to help improve the living conditions of the disadvantaged people. In the same period, Erskine Childers strongly promoted “Development Support Communication” in the

UNDP  system,  insisting  on  the  importance  of  having  a  communication  component  in  all....

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