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Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Abbreviations and Symbols

1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
1.3 Justification
1.4 Aim
1.5 Objectives
1.6 Research Questions

2.1 Agricultural Production in Nigeria
2.1.1 The bane of revitalizing the agricultural sector in Nigeria
2.2 Economic Importance of Livestock Production
2.2.1 Constraints of livestock production
2.2.2 Livestock production and food security in Nigeria
2.2.3 Importance of livestock diseases to economic development
2.3 Cattle Production and its Limitation in Nigeria
2.4 Foetal Wastage
2.4.1 Economic implications of foetal wastage
2.5 Leptospirosis
2.5.1 Historical perspective of leptospirosis
2.6 Biology, Taxonomy, Classification and Genome of Leptospira
2.6.1 Biology of Leptospira organisms
2.6.2 Taxonomy of Leptospira
2.6.3 Classification of Leptospira
2.6.4 Leptospira genome
2.7 Epidemiology of Leptospirosis
2.7.1 Geographical distribution
2.7.2 Global burden of leptospirosis
2.7.3 Epidemiologic analysis of leptospirosis
2.7.4 Prevalence of leptospirosis in Nigeria
2.8 Host Reservoirs of Leptospira
2.9 Method of Transmission of Leptospira
2.9.1 Direct transmission of Leptospira
2.9.2 Indirect transmission
2.10 Virulence Factors Associated with Leptospira
2.10.1 Pathogenesis of Leptospirosis
2.11 Clinical Manifestations of Leptospirosis in Animals
2.11.1 Clinical manifestations associated with Leptospira Pomona
2.11.2 Clinical manifestations associated with Leptospira Hardjo
2.11.3 Abortion in leptospirosis infection
2.12 Differential Clinical Diagnosis
2.13 Host Immune Responses to Leptospira Species
2.13.1 Humoral response
2.13.1 Humoral response
2.13.2 Cell mediated immunity
2.14 Calf Immunity
2.15 Diagnosis of Leptospirosis
2.15.1 Dark-field microscopy
2.15.2 Isolation of leptospires
2.15.3 Serological test
2.15.4 Molecular diagnosis of Leptospira
2.16 Gross Pathological Findings in Leptospira infected Cattle
2.17 Treatment of Leptospira Infection
2.18 Prevention and Control of Leptospirosis

3.1 Study Area
3.2 Sample Size Determination
3.3 Data Collection
3.3.1 Retrospective study
3.3.2 Cross sectional study
3.4 Detection of Antibodies to Leptospirosis
3.4.1 Microscopic agglutination test
3.4.2 Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
3.5 Data Analyses

4.1       Annual Distribution of Foetal Wastage in Old Kano Abattoir from 2005-2014
4.2       Average Monthly Seasonal Variation of Foetal Wastage in the old Kano Abattoir from 2005-2014
4.3       Age Distribution of Foetal wastage in Old Kano Abattoir from November 2014 to January, 2015 in old Kano Abattoir, Kano State, Nigeria
4.4       Estimation of Losses Due to Foetal Wastage in Old Kano Abattoir
4.5       Seroprevalence of Leptospira Hardjo in Serum of Wasted Foetuses from old Kano Abattoir


6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Recommendations


Foetal wastages constitute an obstacle to livestock production and economic development in Kano State in particular and Nigeria in general. Foetal wastage may serve as source of leptospirosis to abattoir workers, the general public and animals. Leptospirosis is a serious economic and zoonotic disease of animals and humans. Retrospective and cross sectional studies were employed to determine the extent of foetal wastage and occurrence of Leptospira species in foetuses using MAT and ELISA from slaughtered pregnant cows in old Kano abattoir, Kano State, Nigeria. The findings revealed that 2.6 % of the 520,805 cows slaughtered in the abattoir during a 10-year period (2005-2014) were pregnant. The period 2010-2014 and the wet season (May to October) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of foetal wastage compared to 2005-2009 and the dry season (November to April) respectively. Five hundred and sixty one (5.2 %) cases of foetal wastage from 10, 769 slaughtered cows were recorded during the 2 months study period. Of these, 445 (79.3%) were in the second and third trimesters. The monetary losses of wasted foetuses per annum if they were allowed to be calved would be in the range of 13, 563, 000 to 16, 953,750 and 673, 200 to 8, 415, 000 for the 10 years and 2 months study period respectively. Of the 372 sera tested for antibodies using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, 21 (5.6 %) were positive for Leptospira Hardjo antibodies. A seroprevalence rate of 9.5 %, 5.2 % and 0.0 % were obtained for foetuses at 3rd, 2nd and 1st trimester respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in seropositivity between the three gestational stages. Out of 372 sera tested using microscopic agglutination test, 52 (13.98 %) were positive to one or more Leptospira serovars at serum dilution of 1:10. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) observed between age groups and Leptospira infection. Amongst the 52 positive samples, 14 (26.9 %), 4 (7.6 %), 2 (3.8 %) and 1 (1.9 %) reacted to Hardjo, Grippotyphosa, Canicola and Pomona respectively at serum dilution of 1:20 or higher. This study indicates that foetal wastage in old Kano abattoir is on the increase and the presence of Leptospira species in these foetuses poses an occupational risk to butchers, abattoir workers, and carnivorous animals that handle or consume infected foetuses/placentas. Therefore, indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows in abattoirs should be prevented. This undesirable practice of wasting foetuses can be converted into a business investment sector thereby saving the enormous loss due to foetal wastage, consequently maintaining and even improving the national cattle population as well as creating employment for the citizens, food security for the nation, income earnings to the farmers and the economy as a whole.



1.1                    Background of the Study

Animal production is very paramount to food security and an essential component to the economic development of any nation. Livestock especially cattle are important as producers of meat and milk, which are part of the food chain and are the main sources of animal protein in Nigeria (Cheeke, 1998; AAGFS, 1999; Bamaiyi, 2013). Livestock serve as sources of flexible house hold income for millions of small holder farmers in Asia, Africa and Latin America (Haan et al., 1998), foreign exchange for the economy and employment for the citizens. They are “cash at hand” and empower their owners with purchasing power (ESAP, 2002). Malnutrition is endemic in almost all developing countries as well as in Nigeria (FAO/WHO, 1983). In Nigeria, high population growth rate (Fasoyiro and Taiwo, 2012) , low economic standard of the citizens (Bamaiyi,2013), infectious diseases (Brisibe et al., 1996; Bamaiyi,2012; Bhat et al., 2012), low level of education of the farmers (Adebayo and Adeyola, 2005) and indiscriminate slaughtering of pregnant animals (Garba et al., 1998; Abdulkadir et al., 2008; Muhammed et al., 2009; Cadmus and Adesokan, 2010; Ardo et al., 2013) are factors contributing to the shortage of animal proteins.

Foetal wastage is a major constraint to livestock production. It contributes to livestock shortage as well as protein malnutrition in developing countries. Factors contributing to foetal wastage include inadequate meat inspection practices leading to slaughtering of pregnant animals (Garba et al., 1998; Abdulkadir et a., 2008; Muhammed et al., 2009; Cadmus and Adesokan, 2010; Ardo et al., 2013), long dry season of the year in sub-Saharan Africa associated with forage scarcity..........

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