FAILURE ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH WEAR RESISTANT LOCALLY- MANUFACTURED GOLD - MILL GRINDING PLATES


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of Contents
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0. Introduction
1.1. Background of Research
1.2. Statement of Research Problem
1.3. Justification
1.4. Aims and Objectives
1.4.1. Aim
1.4.2. The specific objectives
1.5. The Scope of the work

CHAPTER TWO
2.0. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Failure Analysis Overview
2.2. Causes of Failure
2.3. Wear Mechanisms as Agent of Failure
2.3.1. Adhesive Wear
2.3.2. Abrasive Wear
2.4. Failure Induced by Ore Hardness Values
2.5. Mill used for Grinding Mineral
2.6. Minimization of Failure through Wear Reduction
2.7. Materials used for Grinding Mineral Ores
2.8. Carbon Equipment Value (C.E.V)
2.9. Effects of Some Alloying Elements in Cast iron

CHAPTER THREE
3.0. MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
3.1. Materials
3.2. Equipment
3.3.0 Methodology
3.3.1. Determination of the hardness of the as-received and developed samples
3.3.2. Impact strength determination of the as-received and developed samples
3.3.3. The development of new high wear resistant grinding plates
3.3.4. Determination of wear rate of the plates
3.3.5. Microstructural assessment of the samples
3.3.6. Characterization of the gold-bearing mineral
3.3.7. Characterization of the as-received grinding plates
3.3.8. Determination of the work index of the gold bearing minerals

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0. RESULTS
4.1. Hardness Values
4.2. Impact Values
4.3. Wear Rate Results
4.4. Average Wear Rate of the Investigated Samples and their Corresponding Hardness Values
4.5. Microstructural results
4.6. Highlighted in tables 4.8-4.11 are the chemical analysis results of the gold-bearing minerals sample 1 and 2, the as-received grinding plates sample A and B and the hardness and impact values of the mineral samples
4.7. The Work index of the Minerals

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0. DISCUSSION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
5.1.0. Mechanical Properties of the Investigated Samples
5.1.1. Hardness properties of the as-received and developed samples
5.1.2. The impact strength of the as- received and developed samples
5.2.0. Wear Rate Values of the Investigated Samples
5.2.1.   As- received sample A
5.2.2.   As- received sample B
5.2.3. Developed sample C
5.2.4. Developed sample D
5.3. Correlation between the Average Wear Rate and Hardness Values
5.4. Microstructural Analysis of the Investigated Samples
5.4.1. As- received sample A
5.4.2. As- received sample B
5.4.3. Developed sample C
5.4.4. Developed sample D
5.5. The Chemical Analysis of Gold-bearing Minerals
5.6. The Chemical Analysis of the As- received Grinding Plates Samples
5.7. The Work index of the Gold-Bearing Minerals
5.8. Cost to Manufacture New Grinding Plates

CHAPTER SIX
6.0. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1. Summary
6.2. Conclusions
6.3. Recommendations
6.4. Contribution to Knowledge
REFERENCES
APPENDICES



Abstract


The research work is centered on the failure analysis of the as-received locally produced grinding plates, development of high wear resistant grinding plates capable of grinding gold-bearing mineral deposit in Bagega village of Zamfara State. The work was carried out by evaluating the chemical compositions of the as-received grinding plate samples, the compositions of the gold-bearing mineral samples, the microstructures of the as- received and developed grinding plate samples, mechanical properties (impact strength, hardness values) and wear rate of the as-received and developed grinding plates using Optical Emission spectroscopy (OES), Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluoresce (ED-XRF), Metallurgical microscope, impact and hardness testing machine, and the grinding machine. The analysis showed that the as-received locally produced grinding plate samples were grey cast iron with pearlite structure as the major matrix together with few cementite structures, generally characterized by poor mechanical properties. This explained the wear resistance of the samples in supporting grinding of the charged mineral for a longer period thereby prompting the samples to wear and fracture quickly in service. The two locally developed white iron base grinding plate samples showed a remarkable improvement in mechanical properties and wear resistant ability with increase in grinding duration from thirty two to seventy five minutes due to the presence of alloying elements that are capable of promoting abrasive wear resistant in comparism with the as-received failed grinding plates.




CHAPTER ONE


1.0. Introduction

Failure analysis is the process of collecting and analyzing data to determine the cause or causes of failure in general. It is the process by which scientists, technologists, engineers and business analysts use to assess the failure mechanism of any component in service that failed. It is an important area in every manufacturing industry (Neville, 2011).

Due to one reason or the other, machine component often experiences one form of service failure- the consequences which could include death and financial losses. Legal ramifications have encouraged the development of effective failure analysis method. While the cost of failure analysis may exceed the value of the part damaged, in some instances the cost of service failures usually far exceeds the cost of failure analysis (Neville, 2011).

Machine components may fail either as a result of the environmental conditions they are exposed to or the kind of stresses they experience. Often a combination of both environmental and stress condition can cause failure. In essence, these components are designed to withstand both the environmental condition and the stress they will be subjected to in service so that they can serve optimally in life. The designing of a metallic component involves not only a specific elemental compositions, it involves also specific aspect of materials selection processes such as, machining process, heat treatment, experience and skills of the producers. The huge arrays of different metals that exist have unique physical and chemical properties; specific properties are incorporated into metallic components to make them more robust to environmental conditions (Thomas, et al 1999).....

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