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Title Page
Table of contents
Definition of terms

1.0       Introduction and Background of the study
1.1 Statement of the problem;
1.2 Aim of the Study
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Limitations
1.6 Delimitation of the Study;
1. 7 Basic assumptions
1.8       Justification of the Study
1.9       Significance of the Study

2.0       Review of Related Literature
2.1       Hitorical background
2.2       Definitions of clay
2.3       Prospecting and Mining
2.3.1    Clay prospecting
2.3.2    Clay mining The open pit method The underground mining method
2.4.      Classification of Clay
2.4.1    Residual or primary clay and sedimentary or secondary clay
2.4.2    Sedimentary or secondary clay
2.5       Earthenware clay and stoneware clay
2.5.1    Earthenware clay
2.5.2    Stoneware clay
2.6       Characterization of clay samples
2.7       chemical and Physical properties
2.7.1    Chemical composition
2.7.2    Chemical Property of clay
2.7.3    Physical Property of clay
2.8       Preparation of clay body
2.8.1    Manual Preparation of clay
2.8.2    Mechanical Preparation of Clay
2.9       Drying of wares
2.9.1    Type of drying Heat flow drying Open air drying
2.10 Firing of wares
2.10.1 Pre Heating Full firing stage Cooling or Annealing stage

3.1       Research Design And Methology
3.1       Sampling techniques;
3.2       Samples;
3.3       Population of the study;
3.4.      Pilot Study
3.5       Research Instrument;
3.6       Physical analysis of the clay;
3.7.1 Plasticity test,
3.7.2 Shrinkage test
3.7.3 Porosity test-;
3.7.4. Slaking property test
3.7.5. Test for clay strength
3.7.6. Clay colour
3.7.7    Clay residue,
3.7.8 Chemical Analysis
3.8. Composition of experimental clay body sample
3.9. Production of sample wares
3.9.1 Throwing,
3.9.2 Slip casting
3.9.3 Coil building techniques
3.10     Drying;
3.11     Firing of ware;
3.11.1 Annealing or cooling stage;

4.1 Results of physical Analysis of The Clay Samples
4.1.1    Results of plasticity test;
4.1.2  Results of Shrinkage test;
4.1.3    Results of Porosity;
4.1.4 Results of Strength Test
4.1.5    Results of Slaking property;
4.1.5    Slaking property result of Ankpa clay; Slaking Property Test Result
4.1.6 Colour Results of colour test;
4.1.7 Results of the clay residue test;
4.1.8    Results of drying wares
4.1.9    Result of firing the wares
4.2 Results of chemical analysis of Ankpa clay samples
4.3       Finding

5.1       Summary;
5.2 Conclusions
5 .3 Recommendations


This study explored the workability of clay from Ankpa Kogi State of Nigeria for the production of earthenware and stoneware ceramics. This research investigated a manageable area around Ankpa with clay deposits that are locally put to use by local potters, but yet to be used in contemporary ceramic. This study started with preliminary investigation in order to get information on the clay deposit from the people of the area and was followed by field trip to clay deposit areas where clay samples were obtained. There are many clay deposits in and around Ankpa only three samples from Ankpa 1, Ankpa 2 and Odagbo were collected using the random sampling method. Physical and chemical analysis was carried out on the clay samples from the three deposits for their physical and chemical properties. The ceramics wares were produced using the methords of throwing, casting and hand-building. Sample wares produced were dried in the room atmosphere in the ceramics section of the Department of Industrial Design A.B.U Zaria. The wares were successfully fired up to glaze temperature of about 12600C using kerosene kiln in the ceramics section. The following finding were made, Ankpa 1 and Ankpa 2 clay samples are fire clay due to their non plastic nature. The tabular and dense nature of the Ankpa 1 and Ankpa 2 clay samples will not allow it to slake except the grain size is reduced. Odagbo clay sample is a secondary clay due to it plastic nature and high iron content. X ray diffraction analysis of Ankpa 1 and Ankpa 2 shows that they are brownish pink fireclay. The results of these analyses encouraged the utilization of the samples in the experimental production of earthenware and stoneware pieces. Clay body formulated from the clay samples was successfully used in the production of wares.




Clay is a term that refers to a number of earthy materials that are composed of minerals rich in alumina, silica and water. Clay is not a single mineral, but a number of minerals; it is abundant in many places of the world. Clay is formed as a result of weathering of several kinds of rocks in a process that took thousands and millions of years as a result of the actions of environmental agents such as wind, rain, glacier, and freezing. In addition to the weathering process, clay deposits may be formed in a place as residual deposits in soil, however thick deposits usually are formed as a result of secondary sedimentary deposition process after they have been eroded and transported from their original location of formation.

According to Rhodes (1971) there are several types of clays. Clay is an important part of the earthy materials which make up the surface of the planet. It is the end product of weathering of feldspathic rocks. As mountains and hills are worn away by the action of water, the fine ground debris, resulting from the action of water, is finally laid down quietly in still estuaries or deltas, and separated out as it settles in the water to various particle sizes.

This type of clay deposit is common in formal glacial lakes. When glacial lakes are formed, there is very little movement of water that makes the lake, this water contained eroded soils which Settle on the lake bed. This allows such an even distribution on the....

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