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Title page
Table of contents
List of Abbreviation and Acronyms

1.1       Preamble
1.2       Background of the study
1.3       Statement of the Problem
1.4       Justification
1.5       Aims and Objectives of the Investigation
1.6       Scope and Limitation

2.1       Introduction
2.2       The History of Hydropower
2.3       Modern Hydropower
2.3.1 Modern Dams Role in Development
2.3.2 Modern Hydropower     and Hydroelectric Development
2.4       Impacts of dams and Reservoirs
2.4.1 Abiotic Impact of Dams
2.4.2 Impacts on Flow Regime
2.4.3 Impacts on Thermal Regime
2.4.4 Impacts on Water Chemistry
2.4.5 Impacts on Sedimentation
2.4.6 Impacts on Organisms and Biodiversity
2.4.7 Impacts on Primary Production
2.4.8 Impacts on Health
2.5       Schistosomiasis in Dams
2.6       Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment
2.6.1 Ad Hoc Method
2.6.2 Methods of Organizing and Presenting Information Checklists Scales and Weights Matrices Leopold Matrices
2.6.3 Networks
2.6.4 Spatially Based Method Overlays Geographic Information Systems

3.1       The Research Design
3.2       Methods of Impact Identification
3.3       Sources of Data
3.4       Selection of the Respondents
3.5       Data Collection
3.5.1 Questionnaire and Interview
3.5.2 Focus Group Discussion
3.5.3. GIS and Remote Sensing Software Image Classification Change Detection Techniques Change Detection by Area Calculation
3.5.4 Secondary Data Sources
3.6       Data Analysis
3.7       Environmental Baseline
3.7.1 Bio-physical Environment Location and Extent Geology Relief and Drainage Climate Soil and Vegetation Surface Water Use Terrestrial Habitats
3.8       Project Description
3.8.1 Description of Existing Project

4.1       Introduction
4.2       Hydrology Assessment of the Project
4.3       Kiri HPP Power Potential and Options
4.3.1 Generating Potential
4.4       Options for Installation
4.4.1 Scour Gates Advantages of the Scour Gates Disadvantages of the Scour Gates
4.4.2 Tainter Gates Advantages of the Tainter Gates Option Disadvantages of the Tainter Gates Option
4.4.3 New Intake; Penstocks through Embankment Advantages of the New Intake Option Disadvantages of the New Intake Option
4.5 Description of the Proposed Project Installation
4.5.1 Kiri Dam Hydro-Power Project
4.5.2 Plan, Features and Construction
4.5.3 Power Evacuation
4.5.4 Construction Cost Estimate
4.5.5 Operation Cost Estimate
4.5.6 Energy and Production
4.5.7 Summary
4.6 Land-Use and Land Cover Changes in the KIRI Lake Basin (1976 - 2014)
4.6.1 Extent of the Changes of Each Land-Use/ land Cover
4.7 Projection of Future Changes within the Basin
4.8 Socio-Demographic Survey
4.8.1 Socio-Demographic Background
4.9 Reported Adverse Impacts of the Dam
4.10 Environmental Impacts Identified
4.11 Environmental Health Impacts Identified
4.12 Economic Impact
4.12.1 Benefits of the Dam
4.13 Perception of the Local People on the KIRI HPP
4.14 Consulted Local Stakeholders
4.14.1 Outcome of Stakeholders Consultations
4.15     Potential Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of KIRI Hydropower Project
4.15.1 General Impacts
4.16     Impact Criterion and Classification
4.17     Nature of Impacts
4.17.1 Positive/Beneficial Impacts of the Proposed KIRI Hydropower Project Construction Stage Operation Stage
4.17.2 Negative/Adverse Impacts of the proposed KIRI Hydropower Project Construction Stage Operation Stage
4.18     Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan

5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendations


This thesis assesses the potential environmental as well as the social impacts that are associated with the conversion of Kiri dam to a hydro-electric power dam. As case studies, five villages namely; Mabonde, Gelode, WuroJauro, Kiri and New Talum in the Guyuk District of the Adamawa State region respectively, were selected for questionnaire survey and scheduled focus group discussion. A total of 150 questionnaires were administered in the villages and 8 persons from each village were involved in the scheduled focus group discussions. Consultations were made to the institutional stakeholders of the project planning including GOBADEC, UBRBDA, State Ministry of Environment Yola, and State Ministry of Works Yola to ascertain their understanding of the project impacts on the environment. Site visit was also undertaken to ascertain the formation and modification of the of the proposed project environment since the inception of the dam. Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing was applied to study the changes in land-use and vegetation cover since the impoundment of the river in 1982 and it was found that 27.77 km2 of land was lost to the lake reservoir, 20.96 km2 of land was lost to flood plains and 6.82 km2 of land lost to agriculture/settlement, totalling 55.55 km2 of land lost in the last two decades. The result of the study has revealed that the potential adverse impacts of the proposed project such as flooding, pollution and threat to public health to mention a few, are mostly limited to the construction stage of the project. However, numerous benefits such as boost to economic growth, skill transfer to locals and increase in local economic activities are to be enjoyed during both the construction and operational stages of the hydropower project. To avert the potential adverse environmental and social problems in the area, the study recommends equal partnership between the project owners, responsible authority (UBRBDA) with the local people to combat environmental degradation. Furthermore, the use of computer based technologies like Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) should be implemented to play a major role in assisting and combating the problems within the lake and dam catchment areas.



1.1 Preamble

In the technologically advanced world of the 21st century, the development imperative of renewable energy resources and hydroelectric power in particular, in developing countries is attributed to the role it plays in economic advancement and in everyday activities including production, consumption, health and education. Although electric energy is one of the major propellers of economic growth, one of the biggest challenges facing both developed and developing countries currently is the guarantee of a sufficient supply of environmentally friendly energy (El Bassam, 2004).

Renewable energy resources in general and hydropower in particular have been characterized as benign sources of electrical energy that can have a positive contribution for climate change mitigation (Integrated Healthcare Association; (IHA), 2003). Research on replenishing electrical energy resources has established an empirical ground to argue why renewable resources should constitute an essential part of the electrical energy system. Major reason include that it is a clean alternative to greenhouse gas producing fossil fuels and they can supply the demand from a rapid population increase in the developing countries. The rise in the price of fossil fuels, and its reserves depletion makes renewable fuel possible options for developing economies (El Bassam 2004; Sternberg 2008). These key justifications may provide decision makers in developing countries a ground to consider renewable energy resources as an alternative source of energy or at least as part of the energy mix.A large number of developing countries, of which Nigeria is not an exception, have framed an alternative policy that could facilitate the exploitation of locally available renewable electric energy sources such as hydropower resources. Thus, the.......

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