EFFECTS OF THREE BINDING MEDIA ON MOISTURE MOVEMENT IN COMPRESSED EARTH BRICKS


For more Building Project click here



TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Content
List of Plates

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF STUDY
1.2       STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS
1.3       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.4       AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.4.1    Aim
1.4.2    Objectives
1.5       SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
1.5.1 Scope
1.5.2 Limitations

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       SOIL and it’s PROPERTIES
2.1.1    Soil
2.1.2    Soil forming processes
2.1.3    Weathering processes
2.1.5    Physical Weathering
2.1.4    Chemical weathering
2.2       SOIL CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO PARTICLE SIZE
2.3       SOIL STRUCTURE
2.4       SOIL PROFILE
2.5       SOIL FUNCTIONS
2.6       LATERITE SOIL
2.7       SOIL STABILIZATION
2.8       SOIL STABILIZERS
2.9       STABILISATION TECHNIQUES
2.9.1    Mechanical Stabilization
2.9.2    Cement Stabilization
2.9.3    Lime stabilization
2.9.4    Bitumen Stabilization
2.9.5    Gypsum Stabilization
2.10     SOIL COMPACTION
2.11     STABILIZED EARTH BRICKS
2.12     COMPRESSED EARTH BRICKS
2.12.1  Physical characteristics of compressed earth brick (CEBs)
2.12.2  The environmental advantages of building with stabilized compressed earth bricks
2.13     COST AND ENERGY EFFICIENT IN PRODUCTION
2.14     COST AND ENERGY EFFICIENT THROUGH THE LIFESPAN OF THE BUILDING
2.15     CEMENT
2.16     PORTLAND CEMENT
2.17     CASSAVA STARCH PRODUCTION
2.17.1  Modified starches
2.17.2  Geographical Distribution
2.17.3  Functional uses of makuba
2.18     MOISTURE CONTENT MOVEMENT
2.18.1  Thermal movement in earth bricks
2.19     MOVEMENT OF WATER UNDER SATURATED CONDITIONS
2.20     MOISTURE MOVEMENT UNDER UNSATURATED CONDITIONS
2.21     PERMEABILITY
2.20.1 Laboratory methods typically used for measuring the permeability coefficient
2.21     SORPTIVITY
2.22     DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ABSORPTION AND ADSORPTION
2.22.1  Uses of Absorption and Adsorption
2.23     MECHANISM OF MOISTURE MOVEMENT DURING DRYING
2.23.1  Capillary movement of moisture in drying

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1       MATERIALS
3.1.1    Soil samples
3.1.2    Cement
3.1.3    Cassava starch
3.1.4    Starch source
3.1.5    Makuba
3.1.6    Makuba Source
3.1.7    Water
3.1.8    Quantity of Mixing Water
3.2       PRODUCTION OF BRICK SAMPLES
3.2.1    Trial brick production Mix
3.2.2  Main brick production
3.3       PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LATERITE
3.3.1    Field settling test
3.2.2 Sieve analysis
3.3.3    Specific gravity
3.3.4    Moisture content
3.3.5    Density determination test
3.3.6    Mix proportion
3.3.7    Setting time test
3.3.9    Soundness Test
3.3.10  Consistency Test
3.4       MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BRICK SAMPLES
3.4.1    Abrasion resistance test
3.4.2    Water absorption test
3.4.3    Compressive strength test
3.4.4    Sorptivity test
3.4.5    Permeability test
3.4.6    Adsorption test

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION & DISCUSSIONS OF RESEARCH FINDINGS
4.1       PROPERTIES of MATERIALS TEST RESULTS
4.1.1    Field settling test result
4.1.2    Particle size distribution test result
4.1.2    Specific gravity test result
4.1.4    Moisture content test result
4.1.5    Density of material test result
4.2       RESULT of MECHANICAL PROPERTIES of the BRICK SAMPLES
4.2.1    Setting time test result
4.2.2    Soundness of cement test result
4.2.3    Average Density of stabilized bricks
4.2.4    Abrasion test result
4.2.5    Water absorption test result
4.2.6    Adsorption test result
4.2.7    Permeability test result
4.2.8    Sorptivity test result
4.2.9    Compressive strength test result
4.2.10  Relationships Between the Moisture Movements of the Brick Samples

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
5.2       CONCLUSIONS
5.3       RECOMMENDATION
5.4       REFERENCES
5.5       APPENDICES



ABSTRACT

The major problem associated with cassava starch stabilized bricks is the high rate of water absorption. The effect of high rate of water absorption make the bricks to be soluble in water and limits its use for only internal partition walls not out doors. This study therefore evaluates the effects of three binding media on compressed stabilized earth bricks. The three binding media are Makuba, Cassava Starch and Cement. The research entails a laboratory investigation in which three sets of compressed earth bricks were produced which sum up to a total of 107 bricks cured by open air dry method. The control (CO) and the addition of three binding media in the laterite mix were fixed at binder combination (C1) and binder combination (C2). The brick samples were tested for permeability, Sorptivity, water absorption, adsorption, compressive strength, abrasion resistance and density for the curing periods of 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. The results show that permeability of C2 has the minimum absorption rate of 7.90% at 56days. The Sorptivity of C2 had the least water rise of 5% at 10min. It was observed that the average water absorption of the test samples was 2.77% for C2 at 56days which conformed to ASTM C 62 (2010) Water Absorption test of brick samples. The compressive strength of C1 and C2 had increased the strength with 2.29 and 1.69 N/mm2 respectively. The setting time results confirmed that makuba has a significant effect on accelerating the setting time of cement while cassava starch decelerate the setting time of cement. This research was able to assess the effects of the three binding media on moisture movement in brick samples and the high rate of water absorption was reduced and the bricks produced are suitable for outdoors used. It is recommended therefore that for walls exposed to moisture such as external walls and walls of bathrooms and kitchen the C2 binder combination should be incorporated.





CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1                Background of the Study

In the modern brick construction practices, agricultural by-products are largely used as raw materials in laterite brick production. These have many benefits to the environment and bring about economic impact because of the cost of waste disposal which is increasing due to strict environment regulations. Waste utilization has been a common step taken in most countries in the world.Soil construction methods are used in 20%of urban buildings in Nigeria while this figure exceeds 90% in rural areas. Buildings are constructed entirely, or partially of soil, depending on location, climate, available skills, cost, building use and local tradition (Agib et al, 2001).

Laterite which is derived from the Latin word “later”meaning brick, was first used by Buchanan in 1807 for describing a red iron-rich material found in southern parts of India. The soil colour can vary from red, brown, and violet to black, depending on the concentration of iron oxides(Agib et al, 2001).Laterites are highly weathered soils which contain large, though extremely variable, proportions of iron and aluminium oxides, as well as quartz and other minerals. They are found in abundance in the tropics and subtropics, where they generally occur just below the surface of grasslands or forest clearings in regions with high rainfall (Starry, 2007).Laterite is defined by Encarta English Dictionary as red tropical soil: a reddish mixture of clayey iron and aluminium oxides and hydroxides formed by weathering of basalt under humid, tropical conditions. Fermor (1981) classified various forms of laterite soils on the basis of the relative contents of the constituents (Fe, Al, Ti, Mn) in relation to Silica. A chemical....

For more Building Project click here


___________________________________________________________________________
This is a General Thesis for both Undergraduate & Postgraduate Studies. The complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigerian or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679
After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed.

--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.
Share:

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

Article: How to Write a Research Proposal

Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand ...

Popular Posts