EFFECTS OF SECURITY ATTACKS ON PERFORMANCES OF MANET MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOL


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acronyms

Chapter I Introduction
1.1       Ad Hoc networking
            1.1.1The Ad Hoc network operating principle
1.2       Multicast routing in MANET
1.3       Security vulnerabilities of ad hoc network
            1.3.1 Lack of centralized management
            1.3.2 Resource availability
            1.3.3 Scalability
            1.3.4 Cooperativeness
            1.3.5 Dynamic topology
            1.3.6 Limited Resource
1.4       Statement of the problem
1.5       Research objectives
1.6       Scope
1.7       Methodology
1.6       Thesis organization

Chapter II  Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc networks
2.1 Desirable properties of an efficient routing algorithm
2 2.Broad Classification of Routing Algorithms for Ad Hoc Networks
2.2.1Hierarchical Routing
2.2.2 Flat Routing
            2.2.2.1 Proactive Routing
            2.2.2.2 Reactive Routing Algorithms
2.3 Multi Cast Routing in Ad Hoc Network
2.3.1 Mesh- and Tree-Based Multicast Overview
2.3.1.1 Multicast Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector- MAODV
2.3.1.2 On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol – ODMRP
2.3.1.3 Position Based Multi Cast Routing (PBM)
2.3.1.4 Overlay Multicast – PAST-DM
2.3.1.5 Source Routing-based Multicast Protocol
2.3.1.6 PUMA Protocol
2.3.1.6.1 Control Packet
2.3.1.6.2 Core Election
2.4 Quantitative Performance Metrics of MANET Routing Protocols

Chapter III   Security Attacks in Ad-Hoc Network
3.1 Security Goals
3.1.1 Availability
3.1.2 Confidentiality
3.1. 3 Integrity
3.1.4 Authentication
3.1.5 Nonrepudiation
3.1.6 Anonymity
3.2 Security Attacks
3.2.1 Passive Attacks
3.3.2 Active Attacks
3.3 Active Attacks
3.3.1 Black Hole Attack
3.3.2 Worm Hole Attack
3.3.3 Jelly Fish Attack
3.3.4 Rushing Attack
3.3.5 Neighbor Attack
3.3.6 Gray-hole attack
3.4 Passive Attacks
3.5.1 Traffic Monitoring
3.5.2 Syn flooding

Chapter IV Related Works
Introduction
4.1       Study of Different Attacks on Multicast Mobile Ad Hoc Network
4.2       Neighbor Attack and Detection Mechanisms in Mobile Ad hoc Network
4.3       Performance Evaluation of Mesh based Multicast Reactive Routing Protocol under Black Hole Attack
4.4       Impact of Rushing Attack on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
4.5       Multi cast security attacks and its countermeasures for PUMA protocol
4.6       Securing MAODV: Attacks and Countermeasures

Chapter V   Attack Modeling in Ns2
Introduction
5.1       Attack Modeling
5.2       Modification of Codes

Chapter VI Simulation Result and Discussion
6.1       Introduction
6.2       Generating Traffic and Mobility Models
            6.2.1 Traffic Models
            6.2.2 Mobility models
6.3       Simulation and Parsing of trace files
6.4       Results and discussion
6.4.1. Comparison of attack and non-attack scenarios
            6.4.1.1 Impact of Black hole attack with varying number of receives
            6.4.1.2 Multi cast communication with, effect of varying receiver
            6.4.1.3 Black hole attack with varying number of attacker nodes
            6.4.1.4 Jellyfish attack
            6.4.1.5 Impact of attacker position

Chapter VII   Conclusion and Recommendation
References
Appendices
Appendix A: TCL Script
Appendix B: C++ code for Parsing of Trace Files and Calculating Parameters




ABSTRACT

Ad hoc networks are showing wider acceptance in the future trend of wireless system. It became clear that group-oriented communication is one of the key application classes in Mobile Ad Hoc Network environments, where several multi cast routing protocols are proposed. These routing protocols assume non adversarial environment and do not take security issues into account in their design The demand put on the wireless system is challenging the current design of secured system.

Mobile ad hoc networks are prone to security attack than other networks due to its unique characteristics. Research works are going on which help protect ad hoc networks from malicious node behaviors, the demand put on security mechanisms is a challenge due its bandwidth and energy requirements. This study considered to model attack in the simulator for varied properties of multicast communication and performed analysis

We arranged simulation set up to show increase in group communication size by increasing number of receiver nodes decreases the impact of attacker nodes. The effect of attacker node position being near sender and near receive is also analyzed where being near sender more serious than near receiver

In this thesis we thoroughly analyzed the performance of multi cast routing protocol under security attack. We incorporated black hole and jelly fish attacks in Protocol for Unified Multicasting through Announcements by modifying its source code. The design is tested on Network Simulator NS-2. Simulation results show that the presence of attacker node has serious effect on the performance protocol, where analysis showed the packet delivery fraction, good put and end to end delay were affected, the more the number of attacker nodes , the more impact of attack.




Chapter One

Introduction


Wireless mobile ad hoc networks consist of mobile nodes interconnected by wireless multi-hop communication paths. Unlike conventional wireless networks, ad hoc networks have no fixed network infrastructure or administrative support. The topology of such networks changes dynamically as mobile nodes join or depart the network or radio links between nodes become unusable.

Designing a perfect security protocol for ad hoc network is a challenging task due to its unique characteristics such as, lack of central authority, frequent topology changes, rapid node mobility, shared radio channel and limited availability of resources

This thesis is a contribution in the field of security analysis on mobile ad-hoc networks multicast routing protocol. Limitations of the mobile nodes have been studied in order to design a secure multi cast routing protocol that thwarts different kinds of attacks. Our approach is based on the one mesh based multi cast routing
protocol PUMA; the most popular multi cast routing protocol.


In this chapter, we will introduce wireless ad hoc networks, and discuss their applications and general overview of the thesis

1.1 Ad hoc networking

Conventional wireless networks require as prerequisites a fixed network infrastructure with centralized administration for their operation. In contrast, so called (wireless) mobile ad hoc networks, consisting of a collection of wireless nodes, all of which may be mobile, dynamically create wireless network amongst themselves without using any such infrastructure or administrative support [1]. Ad hoc wireless networks are self-creating, self-organizing, and self-administering. They come into being solely by interactions among their constituent wireless mobile nodes, and it is only such interactions that are used to provide the necessary control and administration functions supporting such networks. Mobile ad hoc networks offer unique benefits and versatility for certain environments and certain applications. Since no fixed infrastructure, including base stations, is prerequisite, they can be created and used.....


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