EFFECTS OF INTERVAL TRAINING ON SERUM LIPIDS, LIPOPROTEINS AND BODY FAT PATIERNS OF NIGERIAN ADULT MALES


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Content
Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
Background of the Study
1.1       Statement of the Problem
1.2       Research Questions
1.3       Basic Assumptions
1.4       Hypotheses
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Delimitation of the Study
1.7       Limitation of the Study

CHAPTER TWO
1.0       Review of Related Literature
2.1       Introduction
2.2 Serum lipids lipoproteins and health
2.2.1 Total cholesterol
2.2.2 Triglycerides
2.2.3 Low density lipoprotein cholesterol
2.2.4 High density lipoprotein cholesterol
2.2.5 Serum Lipid/Lipoprotein Ratios and Health
2.3 Body Fat Patterns and Health
2.3.1 Body Mass Index
2.3.2 Conicity Index
2.3.3 Hip circumference
2.3.4 Waist circumference
2.3.5 Waist to hip ratio
2.4 Methods Measurement of Serum Lipid Lipoprotein and Body Fat Pattern
2.6 Summary

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Research Methodology
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.3       Population
3.4       Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.5       Research Assistants
3.6       Instrumentation
3.6.1    Weighing Scale: A precision electronic scale (Nwodel 89584, made in China 2009)
3.6.2    Stadiometer: the hottain stadiometer (Model Njo 7072: Export inc.
3.6.3    Needles and Syringes: Seventy two (72) non puragenic 5m1 disposable 3.6.4 Stop Watches: Three (3) stop watches manufactured by the Tewelled
3.6.5    Measuring tape: Three (3) non elastic horse brands (Model 51542 tape
3.7       Procedure for Data Collection
3.7.1    Experimental Control
3.8       Exercise Training Methods
3.9       Interval Training
3.11     Manipulation of Variables In Interval Training
3.12     Health and Fitness Benefits of Interval Training
3.13     Training Protocol
3.13.1 Tests
3.13.2 Biochemical Measurement
(i)         Estimation of Total Cholesterol
(ii)        Estimation of Triglycerides
(iii)       Estimation of Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
(iv)       Estimation of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
3.13.3  Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Results
4.3       Hypothesis Testing
4.4       Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Summary
5.3       Conclusion
5.4       Recommendation
REFERENCE



ABSTRACT


This study investigated the effect of a 12 week programme of moderate intensity interval training on serum total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TCIHDL-C, TC/HDL-C LDLC/HDL-C ratios and body fat variables which include Body Mass Index, Conicity Index, Waist to hip circumferences, and waist to hip ratio (WHR) in an untrained adults ages 18-25 years. The participants were randomly assigned to experimental group (N18) or a control group (N18). The participants in the experimental group underwent a 12 week interval training in brisk walk, jogging and running (1:1iwork-rest ratio) 3 times for 12 weeks at a moderate intensity of 70% maximal heart rate. Results showed that there were significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC), (P < 0.01), triglycerides (P> 0.01), TG/HDL-C ratio (P 0.01) waist circumference (P 0.01) and significant increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P> 0.05) but no changes were shown in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), waist to hip ratio, Body Mass Index and Conicity Index with interval training. Therefore, based on the findings of this study, the researcher recommended that Nigerian Adult males should always participate in regular interval training programmes of low to moderate intensity to reduce the chances of cardiovascular disease risk factors and to maintain health and fitness for productivity in the general population.




CHAPTER ONE


1.1 INTRODUCTION


Background to the Study


The prevalence of lipids, lipoprotein cholesterol including body fat and its distribution in populations has increased over the years and has become a major health problem, thus increasing the risk of coronary heart disease which is a leading cause of death worldwide (Cutler, 2006; Yang, 2005; Drygas, 2000; Franceschini, 2001). For example, it has been generally suggested that elevated levels of serum cholesterol are the primary and the most independent risk factor in the development of both atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases both in the developing and developed countries (Cutler, 2006, Yang, 2005 and Drygas 2000). High levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol have been generally accepted to show a protective effect against coronary heart disease (CHO) due to its role in the reverse transport of cholesterol from the peripheral vascular compartment and tissue to the liver to excretion of bile. This mechanism has been linlced or associated with the activity of hepatic lipase (HL) an enzyme that facilitates the role of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in reverse cholesterol transport from the arterial wall to help keep the arteries open to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (Kodama, 2007; William, 1999; Drygas, 2000; Cutler, 2006 and Kelley, 2006). Similarly, research evidence (William, 1999; Kelley and Kelley, 2006) suggest that today fat patterns and its distribution.......


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