EFFECT OF PROCESSING AND POTENTIALS FOR PREVENTING NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES USING MORINGA (Moringa oleifera) LEAF POWDER AND SOYFLOUR BLENDS


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of contents
List of equations
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTON           
1.1       Background of Study
1.2       Aims and objectives
1.3       Justification of the study
1.4       Significance of the Study

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       The Moringa Tree
2.2       Moringa- The Miracle Plant
2.3       Health Benefits of Moringa
2.4       Phytochemicals
2.5       The Role of Phytochemical in Antioxidant Defense System
2.6       Phytochemicals and Non communicable diseases
            2.6.1 Phytochemicals and Cardio-vascular diseases
            2.6.2    Phytochemicals - diabetes and obesity
            2.6.3 Phytochemicals and Hepatoprotection
            2.6.4 Role of phytochemicals in the prevention of cancer
2.7       Phytochemistry of Moringa
2.8       Potentials of Moringa in fighting Malnutrition/Micronutrient Deficiency
            2.8.1 Moringa and Protein Malnutrition
            2.8.2 Moringa and Micronutrient Deficiency
2.9       Effect of Processing on the nutrient content of Moringa leaves

CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Procurement of Materials
3.2       Processing Methods
3.3       Formulation of moringa-akamu blends
3.4       Chemical Analyses
            3.4.1    Proximate composition
3.4.2    Mineral analyses
3.4.3    Vitamin determination
3.4.4    Phytochemical Evaluation
            Determination of Antioxidant Potential
3.5       Sensory Evaluation
3.6       Animal Studies
3.6.1    Effect of Moringa Leaf Powder (MLP) Supplemented diet on some biochemical indices of Rats
3.6.2    The potentials of morinnga leaf powder (MLP) and MLP/ soy flour (MOSO) in preventing protein malnutrition
3.6.3    The potential of moringa leaf powder (MLP) and MOSO in preventing iron deficiency anaemia
3.6.4    The potential of morinnga leaf powder (MLP) and    MOSO in preventing Vitamin A deficiency
3.6.5    Potentials of morinnga leaf powder (MLP) and MLP/soybean flour (MOSO) supplemented diet in reducing the effect of high fat feeding
3.7       Biochemical Analysis
            3.7.1 Markers of liver function
            3.7.2 Haematological Analysis
            3.7.3 Plasma protein status
            3.7.4 Iron status analysis
            3.7.5 Vitamin A status
            3.7.6 Lipid Profile Evaluation
            3.7.7 Lipid peroxidation
            3.7.8 Serum vitamin C
3.8  Calculation of percentage Relative Organ Weight
3.9       Calculation of feed efficiency ratio (FER)
3.10     Experimental design
3.11     Statistical analysis

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Effect of Processing on the Chemical Composition of Moringa Leaf powder
4.1.1 Effect of Boiling and Drying on the proximate composition (%) of Moringa Leaf Powder
4.1.2 Effect of Fermentation and Drying on the proximate composition (%) of Moringa Leaf Powder
4.1.3 Effect of Boiling, and Drying on the Vitamin Content (mg/100g) of  Moringa Leaf Powder
4.1.4 Effect of Fermentation and Drying on the Vitamin Content (mg/100g) of Moringa Leaf Powder
4.1.5 Effect of Boiling and Drying on the Mineral Composition (mg/100g) of Moringa Leaf Powder
4.1.6 Effect of Fermentation and Drying on the Mineral Composition (mg/100g) of Moringa Leaf Powder
4.1.7    Effect of Boiling and Drying on the Phytochemical composition (mg/100g) of Moringa Leaf Powder
4.1.8: Effect of fermentation and drying on the Phytochemical composition of Moringa leaf powder
4.1.9  Effect of Boiling and Drying on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity (%) of Moringa Leaf Powder
4.10     Effect of Fermentation and Drying on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity (%) of Moringa Leaf Powder
4.2 The effect of Moringa leaf powder (MLP) and moringa leaf powder/ soybean flour blend supplementation on the chemical composition of akamu
4.2.1 The effect of Moringa leaf powder (MLP) supplementation on the proximate composition (%) of akamu
4.2.2 The effect of Moringa leaf powder (MLP)/soy bean flour blend supplementation on the proximate composition (%) of akamu
4.2.3 The effect of Moringa leaf powder (MLP) supplementation on the vitamin content (mg/100g) of akamu
4.2.4: The effect of Moringa leaf powder (MLP)/soybean flour blend supplementation on the vitamin content (mg/100g) of akamu
4.2.5  Effect of supplementation with MLP on the phytochemical content of akamu
4.2.6: Effect of supplementation with MLP//soy bean flour on the phytochemical content of akamu
4.2.7: Effect of supplementation with MLP on the antioxidant activity of akamu
4.2.8: Effect of supplementation with MLP/soy bean flour on the    antioxidant activity of akamu
4.3  Effect of supplementation with moringa leaf powder and moringa leaf powder/soybean flour on the sensory scores of akamu
4.3.1  Effect of Supplementation with Moringa leaf powder on the sensory evaluation scores of akamu
4.3.2    Effect of Supplementation with Moringa leaf powder/soy bean flour on the sensory evaluation scores of akamu
4.4: Effect of Moringa Leaf Powder Supplemented diet on some biochemical indices of Normal Rats
4.4.1 Effect of Moringa Leaf Powder Supplemented diet on total feed intake and total body weight gain of Normal Rats
4.4.2: Effect of MLP supplemented diet on haematological Indices of normal rats
4.4.3: Effect of MLP supplemented diet on percentage relative organ weight of normal rats
4.4.4: Effect of MLP supplemented diet on liver function markers of normal rats
4.4.5: Effect of MLP supplemented diet on serum lipid profile (mg/L) of    normal rats
4.5 The potentials of moringa leaf powder in preventing protein malnutrtion
4.5.1 Effect of moringa leaf powder (MLP) supplemented low protein diet on growth parameters of rats.
4.5.2 Effect of MLP/ soy bean flour (MOSO) supplemented low protein diet on growth parameters of rats
4.5.3: Effect of moringa leaf powder (MLP) supplemented low protein diet on relative organ weight of rats.
4.5.4 Effect of moringa leaf MLP/soy bean flour supplemented low protein diet on relative organ weight of rats.
4.5.5    Effect of MLP supplemented low protein diet on haematological parameters of rats
4.5.6    Effect of MLP/soy bean flour supplemented low protein diet on haematological parameters of rats
4.5.7: Effect of MLP supplemented low protein diet on Plasma Protein status of rats
4.5.8: Effect of MLP/soy bean flour (MOSO) supplemented low protein diet on Plasma Protein status of rats
4.6 Potential of moringa leaf powder (MLP) and MOSO in preventing iron deficiency anaemia
4.6.1: Effect of moringa leaf powder (MLP) supplemented iron deficient diet on the feed intake and body weight gain of rats
4.6.2: Effect of MLP/soy bean flour (MOSO) supplemented iron deficient diet on the feed intake and body weight gain of rats
4.6.3: Effect of MLP supplemented low iron diet on the haematological parameters of rats
4.6.4: Effect of MLP/soy bean flour (MOSO) supplemented iron deficient diet on the haematological parameters of rats
4.6.5: Effect of MLP supplemented iron deficient diet on the percentage relative organ weights of rats
4.6.6: Effect of MOSO supplemented iron deficient diet on the percentage relative organ weights of rats
4.6.7: Effect of MLP supplemented iron deficient diet on serum and organ iron status of rats
4.6.8: Effect of MOSO supplemented iron deficient diet on serum and organ iron status of rats
4.7:      The potential of morinnga leaf powder (MLP) and MOSO in preventing Vitamin A deficiency
4.7.1: Effect of MLP supplemented vitamin A deficient diet on feed intake and body weight gain of rats
4.7.2: Effect of MOSO supplemented vitamin A deficient diet on feed intake and body weight gain of rats
4.7.3: Effect of MLP supplemented vitamin A deficient diet on haematological parameters of rats
4.7.4: Effect of MOSO supplemented vitamin A deficient diet on haematological parameters of rats
4.7.5: Effect of moringa leaf powder (MLP) supplemented vitamin A deficient diet on percentage relative organ weights of rats fed.
4.7.6: Effect of moringa leaf powder (MLP)/soy bean flour (MOSO) supplemented vitamin A deficient diet on percentage relative organ weights of rats fed.
4.7.7: Effect of MLP supplemented vitamin A deficient diet on organ and serum iron status of rats
4.7.8: Effect of MOSO supplemented vitamin A deficient diet on organ and serum iron status of rats.
4.7.9: Effect of MLP supplementated low vitamin A diet on the liver and   serum vitamin A status
4.7.10: Effect of MOSO supplementated low vitamin A diet on the liver and serum vitamin A status
4.8  Potentials of MLP/MOSO supplemented diet in reducing the effect of high fat feeding
4.8.1:   Effect of MLP supplemented diet on the feed intake (g) and body weight gain of rats fed high fat diets
4.8.2: Effect of MOSO supplemented diet on the feed intake (g) and body weight gain of rats fed high fat diets
4.8.3: Effect of MLP supplemented diet on the percentage relative organ weights  of rats fed high fat diets
4.8.4: Effect of MOSO supplemented diet on the percentage relative organ weights of rats fed high fat diets
4.8.5: Effect of moringa leaf powder (MLP) supplemented diet on serum Lipid profile status of rats fed high fat diets
4.8.6: Effect of moringa leaf powder/soy bean flour blend (MOSO) supplemented diet on serum Lipid profile status of rats fed high fat diets
4.8.7: Effect of MLP supplemented diet on serum liver function markers of rats fed high fat diets
4.8.8: Effect of MOSO supplemented diet on serum liver function markers of rats fed high fat diets
4.8.9: Effect of MLP supplemented diet on serum lipid peroxidation and    vitamin C status of rats fed high fat diets
4.8.10: Effect of MOSO supplemented diet on serum lipid peroxidation and vitamin C status of rats fed high fat diets

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION
REFERENCES



ABSTRACT

Fresh moringa leaves were collected, washed and divided into five portions. Three portions were treated as fresh , sun and shade dried samples. Each of the two remaining was further divided into two parts. One part was fermented and the other part was boiled. Fermentation was done for varying times of 12, 24, 36 and 48h and thereafter shade dried. Boiling was done for 2½, 5, 7 ½ and 10min and subsequently shade dried. The dried samples were milled, sieved through muslin cloth to obtain moringa leaf powder (MLP) which was stored in plastic bottles at -4oC until used. Soybean flour was prepared, then Moringa leaf powder and MLP/soybean flour blends were used to supplement dry akamu (AK) at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels respectively. Proximate, micronutrient and phytochemical compositions of all the samples were determined using standard methods. Bio assays, using albino rats were carried out to evaluate the potentials of shade dried MLP for preventing protein, vitamin A and iron deficiencies and reducing the effects of high fat feeding. The effect of moringa leaf powder supplemented diets on the biochemical indices of high fat diet fed rats was also determined. Fresh Moringa oleifera leaves contained 2.16% crude protein, 84.80% moisture, 0.53% ether extract, and 10.86% carbohydrates. Vitamin A, iron and phytate occurred at 13.60mg/100g , 1.38mg/100g and 0.075mg/100g respectively. Drying led to significant (p<0 -15.50mg="" .05="" 0.45mg="" 0.68="" 10min="" 17.30mg="" 17.40="" 19.30mg="" 26.96="" 28.31="" 30.65="" 48h="" 69.92="" 86.23="" a="" activity="" after="" all="" and="" antioxidant="" boiled="" boiling="" both="" but="" caused="" concentration="" content="" decrease="" decreased="" dried="" drying="" fermentation="" fermented="" from="" g="" i="" in="" increase="" increased="" iron="" led="" levels="" mg="" mlp="" nutrients.="" of="" p="" phytate="" protein="" sample="" samples.="" shade="" significant="" significantly="" supplementation="" the="" to="" vitamin="" with="">akamu
(with and without soybean flour) affected (p<0 .05="" ak.="" all="" blends="" chemical="" compositions="" content="" increased="" of="" p="" protein="" relative="" resulting="" significantly="" span="" the="" to=""> from 8.07mg/100g in AK to 13.53mg/100g in 40% supplemented MLP/akamu (MA) and from 8.07 mg/100g in AK to 16.60 mg/100g in 40% supplemented MLP/soybean flour/akamu (MSA) blend. Vitamin A content of MA increased (p<0 .05="" 0.38mg="" 13.30mg="" 15.90mg="" a="" also="" and="" assay="" bio="" blood="" body="" cell="" cholesterol="" compared="" concentration="" count="" deficient="" density="" diet.="" diet="" diets="" elevated="" fat="" fed="" from="" g="" had="" haemoglobin="" high="" in="" increased="" iron="" levels="" lipoprotein="" low="" ma="" mlp="" msa.="" of="" ones.="" p="" plasma="" protein="" rats.="" rats="" red="" reduced="" relative="" revealed="" serum="" significantly="" span="" status="" supplementation="" supplemented="" that="" the="" those="" to="" total="" unsupplemented="" vitamin="" weight="" when="" with="">



CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study

At the Millennium Summit held at the United Nations Headquarters, New York in September 2000, world leaders adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration, committing their nations to a bold global partnership aimed at reducing extreme poverty and addressing a series of health and development targets (UN, 2000). These targets known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is a commitment to reduce the proportion of people who suffer from hunger and malnutrition by half between 1990 and 2015 (UN, 2001). More than a decade after this summit, we are confronted with the sad reality that virtually no progress has been made towards meeting those targets; rather the food insecurity situation is worsening globally (FAO, 2006). Regrettably, the very body that set these targets has acknowledged that progress in achieving these targets has been uneven between and within countries. The prevalence of hunger and malnutrition had also risen from 2007 through 2009 (UN, 2010).

The journey to realizing the MDGs is further threatened by the current global food crisis, which has sent the prices of staples out of the reach of the already impoverished people. FAO (2006) noted that despite the commitment of World leaders to Millennium Development Goals......

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