### EFFECT OF GUIDED-DISCOVERY AND PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES ON ATTITUDE AND PERFORMANCE TOWARDS GEOMETRY AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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Title Page
Abstract
Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Null Hypotheses
1.6       Significance of the Study
1.7       Scope/ Delimitation of the Study
1.8       Basic Assumptions

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Conceptual Framework
2.3       The Concept of Guided-Discovery
2.3.1    How to Use Guided Discovery Problems
2.3.2    Creating Guided-Discovery Problems
2.3.3    Facilitating Guided-Discovery Problems
2.3.4    Concerns and Warnings about Discovery Learning
2.4       The Concept of Problem Solving
2.5       Lecture Method of Teaching and Learning
2.5.1    Instructional Methods of Delivery using the Lecture Strategy
2.6       Related Studies on Guided Discovery Strategy and Problem Solving Strategies Attitude and Performance
2.7       The Concept of Geometry
2.7.1    Studies on Students‟ Academic Performance in Mathematical Geometric Concepts
2.7.2    Factors Affecting Secondary School Students Performance in Geometry
2.7.3    Causes of Learning Difficulty in School Geometry
2.8       Secondary School Students‟ Attitude towards Geometric Concepts
2.9       Studies on Gender and Performance in Geometric Concepts
2.10     Overview of Related Studies
2.11     Implication of Reviewed Literature on the Present Study

CHAPTER THREE: REASEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.3       Population of the Study
3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5       Instrumentation
3.5.1    Geometric Performance Test (GPT)
3.5.2    Student Geometric Attitude Questionnaire (SGAQ)
3.6       Validation of the Instruments
3.7       Pilot Testing
3.8       Reliability of the Instrument
3.9       Administration of Treatment
3.10     Procedure for Data Collection
3.11     Procedure for Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Data Analysis and Result Presentation
4.3       Hypothesis Testing
4.4       Summary of Findings
4.5       Discussion of the Results

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Summary
5.3       Conclusion
5.4       Recommendations
5.5       Contributions to Knowledge
5.6       Limitations of the Study
5.7       Suggestions for Further Studies
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of Problem Solving and Guided Discovery instructional strategies on JSS Students performance and attitude in Kaduna state. A qausi-experiment with pretest-posttest control group design adopted the 3x2 factorial analysis was employed for variable matching. The sample consisted of 381 Government JSS II students made of 195 males and 186 female students drawn from a population of six thousand four hundred and thirty one students of GJSS using stratified random sampling by balloting in thirty (30) junior secondary schools in Kaduna state. The research instruments used were: Geometry Performance Test (GPT) and Students Geometry Attitude Questionnaires (SGAQ). These instruments were validated and reliability coefficient estimated as r=0.98 and r=0.86 respectively. The five hypotheses were tested and analyzed using t-test ANOVA, ANCOVA and Kruskal Wallis Statistics. Post Hoc Scheffe and Least Significant Difference (LSD) were used to detect the source, magnitude and direction of such significant variations. All hypotheses were tested at P< 0.05 level of significance. The findings showed that: (1) there is significant difference among three groups of students when exposed to Problem Solving, Guided Discovery and Lecture Method (ii) there is significant difference in performance between male and female student when exposed to problem solving, guided discovery and those expose to lecture method. (iii) significant difference exist among the three groups in mean attitude score toward geometry when exposed to problem solving, guided discovery instructional strategies and those taught using lecture method . (iv) There is significant mean difference between male and female attitude towards geometry when exposed to problems solving, guided discovery and those in lecture method. Based on this finding, it is recommended that problems solving instructional strategy should be adopted in teaching the JSS student because this strategy produced higher mean score in performance among the students. This implies that mathematics teachers should be trained through seminars and workshops on how to effectively design and use the problem solving and guided discovery strategies in teaching geometric concepts. Conclusively, the problem solving and guided discovery strategies are viable alternatives to the lecture method particularly in teaching abstract geometric concepts among the JSS students.

CHAPTER ONE

THE PROBLEM

1.1              Introduction

Education is a systematic training and instruction designed to transmit knowledge and

develop skills in individuals. This involves a continuing development of relevant knowledge, skills and habit whose broad understanding and application enable individual to contribute meaningfully towards the growth of their society (Mbah, 2012). It is believed that the quality of a nation‟s education is proportional to the level of its prosperity. Nigeria having realized the effectiveness of education as a powerful instrument for national progress and development, adjusted her educational philosophy and methodology to march the ideals and challenges of charging economics and social structure of modern society (FME, 2013). The policy is geared towards producing individuals who will not only possess the capability to solve his problems but also contribute to the development of his society. A number of several subjects can be identified in the curriculum of schools at all levels of Nigerian education, the subjects are included with the expectation that when properly taught, a more effective learning will be the result and this will bring about realization of the goal of Nigerian education as stated in the National Policy on Education (Oche,2012).

There are certain subjects that are classified as core subjects, while others are known as electives (FME, 2013). Core subjects are those subjects which students compulsorily offer while electives subjects consists of subjects from which students can freely make their choice. At the junior secondary school level, Mathematics is a core subject which should be taught well. This is because; the concept of Mathematics plays an important role to an individual day-to-day life and also to the nation at large....

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