EFFECT OF EGGSHELL AS A FILLER ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM


For more Chemical Engineering project click here



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Problem Statement
1.2       Research Justification
1.3       Aim and Objectives
1.4       Scope of Work

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Historical Background
2.2       Polyurethane Foams
2.3       Flexible Polyurethane Foam
2.4       Polyurethane Foam Chemistry
2.4.1 General chemical reactions
2.4.1.1 Blow reaction
2.4.1.2 Gelation reaction
2.4.2 Basic foam components
2.4.2.1 Isocyanate
2.4.2.2 Polyol
2.4.2.3 Water
2.4.2.4 Physical blowing agent
2.4.2.5 Catalysts
2.4.2.6 Surfactants
2.4.2.7 Cross-linking agents
2.4.2.8 Other additives
2.5 Foam Process
2.6 Morphology
2.6.1 Cellular structure
2.6.2 Polymer morphology
2.6.2.1 Urea micro-domain considerations
2.7 Properties which affect Foam Performance
2.7.1 Density
2.7.2 Indentation Force Deflection
2.7.3 Support Factors
2.7.4 Flex Fatigue (Dynamic Fatigue)
2.7.5 Roller Shear
2.7.6 Tear Strength
2.4.7 Resilience
2.4.8 Combustibility
2.8 Fillers
2.8.2 The Effect of Fillers
2.9 Eggshells
2.9.1 Egg Production in Nigeria
2.9.2 Uses of egg-shell
2.11 Foam Characterization
2.11.1 Compressibility Test
2.11.2 Indentation Hardness Test
2.11.3 Tensile Test
2.11.4 Density Test
2.11.5 Hysteresis
2.11.6 Air Flow

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Materials
3.2       Apparatus
3.3       Material, Preparation and Methods
3.3.1 Preparation of eggshell
3.3.2 Beneficiation of the eggshell
3.3.3 Sieve analysis
3.4 Determination of Chemicals Consumption Rate
3.4.1 Determination of Water Content
3.4.2 Determination of Toluene Di-Isocyanate (TDI) Content
3.4.2.1 Hardening of the foam
3.4.3 Determination of Silicone Content
3.4.4 Determination of Amine Content
3.4.5 Determination of Stannous octoate Content
3.4.6 Determination of Filler Content
3.5 Foam Production
3.5.1 Preparation of Flexible Polyurethane Foam
3.6 Characterization of Polyurethane Foam
3.5.1 Compressibility (Compression Set) Test
3.5.2 Indentation (Hardness) Test
3.5.3 Tension (Tensile strength) Test
3.5.4 Density Test of the Foam Sample
3.5.5 Scanning Electron Microscopy

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1       Beneficiation of Egg-shell Particles
4.2       Effect of Filler Volume Fraction and Particle size on Compression Set of Flexible Polyurethane
4.3       Effect of Filler Volume Fraction and Particle size on Hardness Index of Flexible Polyurethane Foam
4.4       Effect of Filler Volume Fraction and Particle size on Elongation at Break and Tensile Strength of Flexible Polyurethane Foam
4.5       Effect of Filler Volume Fraction and Particle size on Heat Ageing Elongation at Break and Tensile Strength of Flexible Polyurethane Foam
4.6       Effect of Filler Volume fraction and Particle size on Support Factor of Flexible Polyurethane Foam
4.7       Effect of Filler Volume fraction and Particle size on Density of Flexible Polyurethane Foam
4.8       Foam Microstructure

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendations
References
Appendices



ABSTRACT

Traditionally, calcium carbonate is used as a filler in foam industries and studies have shown that egg-shell contains about 94 % calcium carbonate. The effect of egg-shell in flexible polyurethane foam was studied in this work. Foam with no filler was produced as a control. The egg-shell was beneficiated, characterized and used as filler in flexible polyurethane foam production with varying loads from 5w% to 15 w% at 2.5 w% interval. The effect of various particle sizes on the egg-shell was also studied. Conventional calcium carbonate was also used and the result compared against the produced egg-shell filled foam samples. The produced samples were characterized for compression set, indentation hardness, elongation at break, tensile strength, heat ageing elongation and tensile strength, support factor and density. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to study the foam‟s morphology. The result of beneficiation showed that the amount of CaCO3 increased by 1.355 % after beneficiating the egg-shell. The results indicated that 45 µm particle size egg-shell was better in most of the properties than other particle sizes tested, with values closest to the control. The highest elongation, tensile strength before and after heat ageing were obtained at 5 wt% of egg-shell. The results also showed that the egg-shell filled foams at 63 µm particle size and 5 wt% loading for tensile strength and elongation before and after heat ageing tests were higher than calcium carbonate filled foam by 1.04 %, 2.66 kN/m2, 0.82 % and 2.22 kN/m2, respectively. In all cases, the density increase with increase in filler loading and particle size. The SEM analysis showed that cell openings of the produced filled foams decreased as particle size and filler content were increased.




CHAPTER ONE

1.0              INTRODUCTION

A brief review of the research work is given in this chapter.




1.1 Background of the Study

Solid foam is formed when gas is blown through solidifying plastic. Depending on its ability to retain original shape after compression, it can be classified as either flexible or rigid, Isa et al.,(2012). The foam can either be closed or open cell foams. In closed cell foams, the foam cells are isolated from each other while the open cell foams are made up of broken cell walls, Babalola and Dominic, (2012).

Flexible polyurethane (PU) foam is one of the major productions from urethane material. Flexible polyurethane foams are used as cushioning material for automotive seat, mattress, furniture, and in packaging etc. According to Klempner and Sendijarevic (2004), flexible polyurethane material has become such widely usedbecause of its excellent light weight, strength to weight ratio performance and the most important is, it offers degree of comfort, protection and utility not matched by other single materials. This usefulness prompts the increase in the prices of polyurethane products consistently over the years which in turn necessitated the incorporation of variety of fillers into foam samples.

Also, the prices of flexible polyurethane foams are becoming increasingly high due to the high cost of raw materials (Onuegbuet al., 2010). The raw materials are mostly liquid reagents and chemicals obtained from petrochemicals and agro-products. The raw materials needed for the production of flexible polyether foam include polyol poly isocyanate, blowing agents, catalysts surfactants and additive such as fillers (Onuegbuet al., 2005).....


For more Chemical Engineering project click here


____________________________________________________________________________
This is a Postgraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigerian or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679
After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed.

--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.
Share:

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

Article: How to Write a Research Proposal

Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand ...

Popular Posts