EFFECT OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of contents
Abbreviations
Operational Definition of terms

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Research Hypotheses
1.6       Basic Assumptions of the study
1.7       Significance of the Study
1.8       Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Theoretical Framework
2.3       Conceptual framework: Nature of Computer Assisted Instruction
2.3.1    Mechanism of CAI Drill and Practice
2.3.2    Characteristics of Computer-Assisted Instruction
2.4       Economics as a Subject
2.5       Computer Assisted Instruction and Senior Secondary School Male and Female Students‘Performance of in Economics
2.6       Rationale for CAI in Teacher Education
2.7       Classroom Trainer Resistance to CAI (E-Learning)
2.7.1    Work roles
2.7.2    Practice and Beliefs about Teaching
2.7.3    Beliefs about Quality of E-learning
2.7.4    Personality Factors
2.7.5    Visions into the future by Teachers
2.8       Types of Technology and their Educational Applications
2.9       Obstacles to the use of CAI in Nigerian Schools
2.9.1    Cost of computer hardware and software
2.9.2    Weak Infrastructure
2.9.3    Lack of skills
2.9.4    Lack of relevant Software
2.9.5    Limited access to the internet
2.10     Empirical Studies
2.11     Summary

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.3       Population of the Study
3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5       Instrumentation
3.5.1    Validity of the Instrument
3.5.2    Pilot Study
3.5.3    Reliability of the Instrument
3.6       Procedure for Data Collection
3.7       Procedure for Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
4.3       Answers to Research Questions
4.4       Hypotheses Testing
4.5       Summary of Major Findings
4.6       Discussions of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusions
5.3       Recommendations
5.4       Implications of the Findings
5.5       Limitations of the Study
5.6       Suggestions for Further Study
            REFERENCES
            APPENDICES



ABSTRACT

This study examined the Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Students’ Performance in Economics in Senior Secondary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study was conducted with four research objectives and four research questions were asked while four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at p < 0.05. Literatures that are related to the study were also reviewed. This study was conducted in the public Senior Secondary Schools in Ekiti State. Specifically, students of SSS II in Government Science College Iyin-Ekiti, Community High School Iyemero-Ekiti, Government College Oye-Ekiti, and Ijaloke Grammar School Emure-Ekiti with a population of 195, using quasi-experimental design. The bio-data of the respondents was analyzed with the use of frequency and percentage while mean and standard deviation was used to answer the four research questions. All the four null hypotheses were tested at 0.05% level of significance using t-test. A t-test of independent sample was used to compare the performance of students taught using Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) method with the performance of the group taught using only traditional method. The findings of the study among others revealed a significant difference in the post-test performance scores of students taught Economics with the use of computer assisted instruction when compared with those taught using the traditional method of instruction; that there was no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught Economics with the use of computer assisted instruction. The first, third and fourth null hypotheses were rejected because the t-value was more than the p-value and the second null-hypotheses were retained as the t-value was less than the p-value. The study concluded that students perform better and score higher in Economics given test when taught using CAI enhanced method. Based on the conclusion, the study recommended that teachers and students in the Senior Secondary School as well as other levels of education should imbibe the use of CAI method of teaching since it enhances students’ performance in courses of study. Also the study recommended that CAI drill and practice software as well as CAI Experts and CAI resources (financial, infrastructure, computers and power generation sources) should be made available by respective Ministries of Education at the Federal and State levels, as well philanthropists who are interested to encourage educational development throughout the country.




CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


1.1               Background to the Study

Teaching methods and instructional techniques in the classrooms have been changing and this is influenced by technological advancements. Technology has changed the whole pattern of human life. The greatest contribution of cyber age technology is the development of Computer and its use in all walks of life. Computer according to Pritchard (2005) is a general purpose machine, commonly consisting of digital circuitry, that accepts (inputs), stores, manipulates, and generates (outputs) data as numbers, text, graphics, voice, video files, or electrical signals, in accordance with instructions called a programme. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: it responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner and it can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a programme). Importantly, it is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other to enhance teaching and learning and to better the standard of living of people the world over (Pritchard, 2005).

Instruction is a statement or explanation of something that must be done, often given by someone in authority. Pratt (2008) views Instruction, as the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill written or spoken directions for carrying out a procedure or performing a task. Effective instructions often include visual elements (such as pictures, diagrams, and flowcharts) that illustrate and clarify the text. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is the process by which written and visual information is presented in a logical sequence to a learner through a computer. The student learns by reading the text material presented or by observing the graphic information displayed. Some of the programmes provide audio-visual presentation with an option to the student to select audio presentation in addition to the visual media. Each segment of text is followed by questions.....

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