EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title
Abstract
Table of content
List of Abbreviations

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Diabetes Mellitus
1.2       Alloxan (2,4,5-6-pyrimidinetetrone)
1.3       Caffeine
1.3.1    Caffeine and diabetes
1.4       Metformin
1.5       Statement of the research problem
1.6       Justification for the study
1.7       Hypothesis
1.8       Aim and Objectives

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Caffeine and the body
2.1.1    Caffeine and the nervous system
2.1.2    Caffeine and muscles
2.1.3    Caffeine and the cardiovascular system
2.1.4    Caffeine and urinary system
2.1.5    Caffeine and the pancreas
2.1.6    Caffeine and the liver
2.1.7    Effect of caffeine on pregnancy
2.2       Metabolism of Caffeine
2.3       Caffeine and blood glucose level
2.3.1    Caffeine and blood glucose level in non-diabetics
2.3.2    Caffeine and blood glucose level in diabetics
2.4       Coffee and blood glucose level
2.4.1    Coffee and blood glucose level in non-diabetics
2.4.2    Coffee and blood glucose level in diabetics
2.5       Caffeine and lipid profile
2.5.1    Caffeine and lipid profile in non-diabetics
2.5.2    Caffeine and lipid profile in diabetics
2.6       Metformin and blood glucose level in the diabetics
2.6.1    Metformin and blood glucose level in diabetics
2.7       Metformin and lipid profile in diabetics
2.7.1    Metformin and lipid profile in diabetics
2.8       Mechanism of action of caffeine
2.9       Mechanism of action of metformin
2.10     Caffeine and body weight
2.10.1 Effect of caffeine on body weight
2.11     Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus

CHAPTER THREE:            MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Animals
3.2       Chemicals and drugs
3.3       Experimental design
3.3.1    Induction of experimental diabetes mellitus
3.3.2    Animal Grouping
3.4       Determinations of weights
3.5       Sample collection
3.6       Determination of blood glucose levels
3.7       Determination of lipid profile
3.7.1    Evaluation of serum total cholesterol (TC)
3.7.2    Evaluation of serum triglycerate (TG)
3.7.3    Evaluation of high density lipoprotein (HDL)
3.8       Data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT
4.1       Physical Observations
4.2       Effect of caffeine on blood glucose
4.2.1    Acute and chronic effects of caffeine on blood glucose level in diabetic rats
4.3       Effect of caffeine on lipid profile
4.3.1    Triglycerides (TG)
4.3.2    Total Cholesterol
4.3.3    High density lipoproteins (HDL)
4.3.4    Lower density lipoprotein (LDL)
4.4       Effect of caffeine on body weight

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1       Summary and Conclusion
6.2       Recommendations
REFERENCES



Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia. Caffeine has been suggested to be capable of disrupting glucose metabolism. The effects of caffeine on blood glucose level and on lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied. The effect of caffeine by determining the blood glucose levels at intervals of 30mins, 1hour and 2hours respectively following administration of caffeine. Caffeine at a dose of 25 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg produced significant (P<0 .05="" 0.05="" 100="" 25mg="" 2="" a="" administration="" after="" all="" although="" and="" animal="" animals.="" animals="" at="" be="" blood="" body="" caffeine="" can="" causes="" changes="" compared="" comparison="" concluded="" control.="" control="" dependent.="" diabetic="" difference="" dose="" duration="" experiment="" found="" glucose="" group.="" groups.="" groups="" hours="" in="" increase="" increases="" indices="" it="" kg="" lasted="" level="" levels="" lipid="" may="" mg="" no="" of="" on="" other="" produce="" profile="" rats.="" rats="" received="" results="" showed="" significant="" significantly="" span="" suggest="" that="" the="" there="" therefore="" these="" those="" to="" triglyceride="" triglycerides="" was="" weeks="" weights="" wistar="" with="">




CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Diabetes Mellitus

Excessive urine excretion is one of the major symptoms of diabetes. The most common form of diabetes is diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder in which there is an inability to oxidize carbohydrate due to disturbances in insulin function. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated glucose in the plasma and episodic ketoacidosis. Additional symptoms of diabetes mellitus include polydipsia, glucosuria, polyuria, lipemia and hunger (King et al., 1998; WCPD, 2012).

Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous clinical disorder with numerous causes. Two main classifications of diabetes mellitus exist, idiopathic and secondary. Idiopathic diabetes is divided into Type 1 diabetes (IDDM) and Type 2 diabetes (NIDDM) (WHO, 2003).

Type 2 diabetes is associated with a cluster of interrelated plasma lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities, including reduced HDL cholesterol, a predominance of small dense LDL particles, and elevated triglycerides. These abnormalities occur in many patients despite normal LDL cholesterol levels. These changes are also a feature of the insulin resistance syndrome (also known as the metabolic syndrome), which underlies many cases of type 2 diabetes. In fact, pre-diabetic individuals often exhibit an atherogenic pattern of risk factors that includes higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides and lower levels of HDL cholesterol than individuals who do not develop diabetes (Krauss, 2004).

World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that approximately 120-140 million people were globally affected by diabetes mellitus in 1999 (WHO, 1990). In 2000, this figure increased to more than 177 million (Kalda et al., 2008) and is projected to.....


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