EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Lawsonia inermis LEAVES ON THE LIVER FOLLOWING ACUTE ETHANOL-INDUCED HEPATIC DAMAGE IN WISTAR RATS


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of contents
List of Abbreviation
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Justification
1.4 Significance of Study
1.5 Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.5.1 Aim of the study
1.5.2 Objectives of the study
1.6 Hypothesis

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Lawsonia inermis
2.1.1 Taxonomy of Lawsonia inermis
2.1.2 Origin and distribution of Lawsonia inermis
2.1.3 Local names of Lawsonia inermis
2.1.4 Morphology of Lawsonia inermis
2.1.5 Phytochemistry of Lawsonia inermis
2.1.6 Ethnomedicinal use of Lawsonia inermis
2.1.7 Pharmacology of Lawsonia inermis
2.1.8 Safety evaluation of Lawsonia inermis
2.1.9 Ethnobotanical uses of Lawsonia inermis
2.2 The Liver
2.2.1 Embryology of the liver
2.2.2 Gross anatomy of the liver
2.2.3 Histology of the liver
2.2.4 Functions of the liver
2.2.5 Liver diseases
2.3 Ethanol
2.3.1 Uses of ethanol
2.3.2 Pharmacology of ethanol

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1 Materials
3.1.1 Collection and identification of plant
3.1.2 Experimental animals
3.1.3 Equipment/instruments
3.1.4 Reagents
3.2 Methods
3.2.1 Preparation of plant extract
3.2.2 Determination of dose
3.2.3 Experimental design
3.2.4 Hepatotoxicity induction
3.2.5 Sacrifice of animals
3.2.6 Morphological studies
3.2.7 Biochemical studies
3.2.8 Molecular study
3.2.9 Histological studies
3.2.10 Statistical analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS
4.1 General Observation
4.2 Morphological Studies
4.2.1 Body weight change
4.2.2 Liver-body weight ratio
4.3 Biochemical Studies
4.3.1 Oxidative stress markers
4.3.2 Protein concentration
4.4 Molecular Study
4.4.1 DNA fragmentation
4.5 Histological Studies
4.5.1 Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining
4.5.2 Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO-EB) staining

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION
5.1 Morphological Studies
5.2 Biochemical Studies
5.2.1 Oxidative stress markers
5.2.2 Protein concentration
5.3 Molecular Study (DNA Fragmentation)
5.4 Histological Study

CHAPTER SIX
6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 Conclusions
6.2 Recommendations
CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE
REFERENCES



ABSTRACT

Lawsonia inermis commonly known as henna has been used traditionally, especially in ayurvedic medicine, for various conditions including liver ailments, and reported to have hepatoprotective properties. This study aims to study the effect of aqueous extract of L. inermis leaves in acute ethanol induced hepatic damage in adult Wistar rats. Thirty (30) female rats were equally divided into five (5) groups (I-V). Group I which served as negative control received distilled water (2 ml) for 8 days. Group II which served as positive control received 40 % ethanol (20 ml/kg) on the 8th day after seven days of distilled water. Group III which served as prophylactic group received 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis for seven days, and 40 % ethanol (20 ml/kg) on the 8th. Group IV served as the therapeutic group, and received 400 mg/kg of the extract for seven days after receiving 20 ml/kg of 40 % ethanol on the first. Group V received silymarin (70 mg/kg) for seven days before 20 ml/kg of 40 % ethanol on the 8th day, to serve as the reference drug. All animals were sacrificed on the ninth (9) day. Body weight changes and liver body weight index were determined. Liver tissues were collected for assessment of oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde), protein concentration, DNA fragmentation, and also for haematoxylin and eosin staining, and acridine orange-ethidium bromide staining. Body weight increased in all groups from initial mean weight of 121.5 g, though significantly (p<0 .05="" administration="" alondialdehyde="" an="" and="" body="" catalase="" caused="" decrease="" different="" dismutase="" ethanol="" from="" glutathione="" group="" groups="" highest="" i="" ii="" in="" increase="" index="" insignificantly.="" iv.="" levels="" lipid="" liver="" observed="" of="" only="" p="" peroxidation="" reduced="" significantly="" span="" superoxide="" the="" though="" was="" weight=""> receiving extract, more so prophylactically, though statistically insignificant. Silymarin significantly increased the level of Superoxide dismutase in comparison to Group II, levels of catalase, reduced glutathione, and Malondialdehyde were insignificantly less than Groups III and IV. Protein concentration was significantly higher in Group II, Group III and Group V, with Group II having the highest. Group III and Group V also differed significantly (p<0 .05="" 400="" acridine="" administration="" amp="" and="" apoptotic="" at="" attenuation="" be="" bromide="" by="" cells="" comparable="" days.="" dna="" dose="" duration="" effective="" effects="" ethanol="" extract="" fragmentation="" from="" group="" groups="" h="" had="" i.="" i="" ii.="" ii="" iii="" in="" iv="" kg="" mg="" more="" most="" necrotic="" observed="" of="" orange-ethidium="" pattern="" prophylactically="" proved="" reduced="" revealed="" seven="" silymarin="" staining="" that="" the="" though="" to="" v.="" v="" was="" while="">Lawsonia inermis
at 400 mg/kg for seven days proved to have more effective hepatoprotection prophylactically than therapeutically, and provided comparable hepatoprotection with that of silymarin.




CHAPTER ONE


1.0    INTRODUCTION


1.1              Background


Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50 % of Americans consume alcohol and 23 % of Americans participated in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once in a month (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011). The most commonly recognized symptoms of alcohol consumption are associated with chronic alcoholism, and it is a casual/risk factor in about 60 major types of diseases (Massey and Arteel, 2012). These, and other effects of alcohol consumption, has made alcohol the third leading risk factor globally for disease and disability (WHO, 2011).

Acute Alcohol exposure or binge drinking is defined in National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2010 as five or more drinks on a single occasion within a time period of three hours (Massey and Arteel, 2012). However, it can also include a period of heavy drinking that may span several days or periods of intermittent, repeated episodes of heavy drinking (Massey and Arteel, 2012). Reports by NSDUH show that more than 58 million Americans participated in binge drinking on at least one occasion within thirty days in 2010 (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011) and acute alcohol consumption is a major underlying cause of morbidity and mortality during hospital admittance (Jones et al., 1991). Due to this, and increasing prevalence of binge drinking in people aged 18-25 (Massey and Arteel, 2012), greater interest has turned towards the effect of acute alcohol exposure.....


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