DEVELOPMENT OF MULTICAST ALGORITHM FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM COST OF BANDWIDTH OVER CODED PACKET WIRELESS NETWORK


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVAITION
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1.1    Multicasting Basics
1.1.2    Multicast Group
1.1.3    Multicast Goals
1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
1.3       AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.4       METHODOLOGY
1.5       SIGNIFICANT OF THE RESEARCH
1.6       DISSERTATION ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       INTRODUCTION
2.2       REVIEW OF FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
2.2.1 Techniques used for Wireless Multicasting
2.2.1.1 Network Coding Techniques
2.2.1.2 Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC)
2.2.1.3 Opportunistic Network Coding         
2.2.2Optimization
2.2.2.1 Optimization Approaches
2.2.3Multicasting in wired and wireless Networks
2.2.4Multicast Routing
2.2.4.1 Shortest Path Tree Algorithm
2.2.4.2 Minimum cost Tree Algorithms
2.2.5 Multicasting in Coded Packet Networks
2.2.5.1 The Multicast Network Model
2.2.6Performance Metrics that Affects Multicast
2.2.7Shannon-Hartley Channel Capacity Theorem
2.2.8 Review of the Existing Network Coding Algorithm
2.2.9 The Improved Network Coding Algorithm
2.3 REVIEW OF SIMILAR WORKS

CHAPTER THREE: METHODS AND MATERIALS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR MINIMUM COST OF MULTICAST
3.2.1 Cost Optimization in Coded Packet Wireless Networks
3.2.2 Mixed Integer Linear Programming Formulation
3.3COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF NCA AND THE INCA
3.4       INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION
3.5       SIMULATION
3.5.1 Simulation Parameters

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1       INTRODUCTION
4.2       PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE TWO ALGORITHMS
4.3       PERFORMANCE EVALAUTION OF THREE ALGORITHMS

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       INTRODUCTION
5.2       CONCLUSION
5.3       SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION
5.4       LIMITATIONS
5.4       RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
REFERENCES
APPENDIX



Abstract

Minimum cost of multicast is the process of finding the node transmission cost such that the total cost of bandwidth used for sending messages from source to any destination nodes is minimized. The Network Coding Algorithm(NCA) was developed using linear programming framework by considering packets delay as the only key performance metrics. This research work is based on Shannon Hartley channel capacity theorem aimed at interpreting the cost of bandwidth within the channel and this was achieved by considering more performance metrics that affect the channel. Loss and delay of packetare collectively considered and later delay, loss and rejection packet are also considered on the Network Coding Algorithm. The problem was formulated as optimization problem using mixed integer linear programming problem. Simulation results showed that the average cost of bandwidth decrease as more performance metrics are collectively considered. When two performance metrics of delay and loss are considered collectively, there was a reduction in the average cost of bandwidth used during multicast by 27%, 28.7%, 29.5%, 20.9% 18.5%, 23.8%, 21.6% and 20.9% for 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 randomly generated nodes multicasting to groups of receivers when compared with the benchmark algorithm of delay only. Similarly, considering three performance metrics (delay, loss and rejection) achieved a reduction in the average cost of bandwidth by 37.07%, 37.6%, 41.15, 29%, 30% and 35.3% for 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 randomly generated nodes multicasting to various groups of receivers as compared with benchmark algorithm. Equally, results also showed that the average cost of bandwidth for NCA with three performances parameters decreases for 12.7%, 13.6%, 16.6%, 11.1%, 16.3% and 15.1% for all the number of randomly generated nodes as compared to a situation when two performance metrics are considered. From the results obtained, it can be observed that the cost of bandwidth with 40 randomly generated nodes recorded the highest decrease in the average cost of bandwidth because the cost of multicast for NCA, INCA with two and three performance metrics tends to be linear and increase as the number of receivers increases.From these results, it could be concluded that the more performance metrics considered in the NCA, the better the true picture of the channel is represented. When interpreting the cost of bandwidth using Shannon-Hartley channel capacity theorem, the study established that the cost of bandwidth within the channel was under estimated as more performance metrics are considered.




CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

The process of routing messages from a source to a set of destination nodes is known as multicast (Wen & Liao, 2010). According to Xuan and Lea (2011), Multicast video streaming and video conferencing is speedily becoming a key requirement of many computer networks supporting numerous multimedia applications. In multicast, a single message is delivered to a cluster of destination in a network and this concepts has been studied for both wired and wireless networks (Lertpratchya et al., 2014). Multicast as a means of communication is an essential part of many next generation networks and there are limited numbers of network usersthat support multicast in the Internet today. This has made it necessary for applications requiring multicast services to obtain services at a higher standard. Also, according to Chopra and Mishra (2012), multicasting is the transmission of data in a group of nodes which is recognized by one and distinctive address. Multicast services allow one source to send information to a large number of receivers and it finds application in many areas such as audio conferencing, video conferencing, video-on-demand services, peer-to-peer file sharing, electronic learning, online shopping, distributed interactive simulation, software enhancement, Wireless Internet Protocol Television (IPTV), distance Education, group-oriented mobile commerce, firmware reprogramming of wireless devices, distributed database replication etc, (Han et al., 2014; Haripriya & Valluvari, 2013; Wu et al., 2014). Ashlwede et al., (2000) showed that multicasting can take place in a situation where two source nodes are simultaneously sending information to different groups of receivers by superposition. Figure 1.1 shows the basic concept of multicasting.....


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