DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GLASS CERAMIC FROM COCA-COLA GLASS BOTTLE AND MAGNESITE


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Content
Abbreviations

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1       Statement of research problem
1.2       Justification
1.3       Aim and Objectives
1.4       scope of the research
1.5       Contribution to Knowledge

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Ceramic materials
2.2       Classification of ceramic materials
2.3       Structure of ceramic materials
2.4       Advance Ceramics
2.5       Glass Ceramics
2.6       Ceramic Processing and Crystal Growth
2.7       Processing Routes for Glass-Ceramic Production
2.7.1 Conventional Method (Two-Stage)
2.7.2 Modified Conventional Method (Single-Stage)
2.7.3 Petrurgic Method
2.7.4 Powder Methods
2.7.5 Sol-Gel Precursor Glass
2.8       Glass Ceramic Composition Systems Relevant To the Study
2.8.1 SiO2-Al2O3-CaO (Wollastonite)
2.8.2 SiO2-A12O3-MgO (Cordierite, Enstatite)
2.8.2.1 Cordierite Glass-Ceramics
2.8.2.2 Enstatite Glass-Ceramic
2.9 Sintering
2.9.1 Overview of Sintering Theory
2.9.2 Mechanisms of Sintering
2.9.3 Factors Affecting Sintering
2.10 Advantages of Glass Ceramics
2.11 Application of Glass ceramics

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
3.1 Materials and Equipment
3.1.1 Materials
3.1.2 Equipment
3.2 Raw material characterization
3.2.1 X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
3.2.2 X-ray diffraction (XRD)
3.2.3   Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA)
3.3  Sample Preparation
3.3.1 Batch Formulation and Preparation
3.4 Characterization of the glass ceramic Samples
3.4.2. X-ray diffraction (XRD)
3.4.3 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
3.5 Tests for Physical and Mechanical Properties
3.5.1 Density
3.5.2 Porosity
3.5.3 Flexural Strength
3.5.4 Hardness

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Results
4.2 Discussion of results
4.2.1 X ray Diffraction and X ray Fluorescence of Raw Materials
4.2.2 Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA)
4.2.3X-ray diffraction (XRD)
4.2.4Scanning Electron Microscope
4.2.5 Density
4.2.6 Porosity
4.2.7 Flexural Strength
4.2.8 Hardness

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendations
REFERENCES



ABSTRACT

In a bid to address environmental challenges associated with the management of waste Coca cola glass bottle, this study sets out to develop glass ceramic materials using waste Coca cola glass bottles. Magnesite from Sakatsimta in Adamawa state and reagent grade chrome (coloring agent) were used to modify the composition of the coca cola glass bottle; x-ray fluorescence (XRF), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the raw materials. Four batches GC-1= (Coca cola glass frit +1%Cr2O3), GC-2= (97% Coca cola glass frit+ 2%magnesite+1%Cr2O3), GC-3= (95% Coca cola glass frit+ 4%magnesite+1%Cr2O3) and GC-4= (93%Coca cola glass frit+ 6%magnesite+ 1%Cr2O3) were formulated and prepared. TGA results were used as a guide in selection of three temperatures (7000C, 7500C and 8000C) used for the study. Three particle sizes -106+75, -75+53, -53┬Ám and 2hrs sintering time were used. The sinter crystallization route of glass ceramic production was adopted. Produced samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the density, porosity, hardness and flexural strength of the resulting glass ceramics were also measured using Archimedes principle, ASTM C373, ASTM C348, ASTM C1327 respectively. The resulting glass ceramic materials composed mainly of wollastonite, diopside and anorthite phases depending on composition as revealed by XRD and SEM. The density of the samples increased with increasing sintering temperature and decreasing particle size while the porosity was minimal and decreased with increasing sintering temperature and decreasing particle size. The obtained glass ceramic materials possessed appreciable hardness and flexural strength with GC-3 and GC-4 having the best combination of both properties. It is therefore recommended that both compositions be used were a good combination of the aforementioned property is required.





CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                  INTRODUCTION


The chronology of the human race from inception has been predicated on one material or the other in the form of tools or simple machine for usage. Historically the development and advancement of societies have been intimately tied to the members‟ ability to produce and manipulate materials to provide their needs. In fact early civilizations have been designated by the level of their materials development (Stone age, Bronze age, Iron age) (Callister, 2007). Modern science and technology constantly require new materials with special properties to achieve breathtaking innovations.This development centers on the improvement of scientific and technological fabrication and working procedures by rendering them faster, economically more viable and better in quality, at the same time new materials are introduced to improve general quality of life. Among the entire new materials: glass ceramic materials play a very special role as they offer the possibility of combining the special properties of conventional sintered ceramics with the distinctive characteristic of glass (Holland and Beall, 2002).

Glass ceramic, a family of polycrystalline materials produced by the controlled crystallization of glasses-generally induced by nucleating additives constitutes an essential part of modern living, since they are used as cookware through critical but familiar uses in dental restoration to the even more critical use in missile radomes. They are yet to find complete replacement in the face of stiff competitions from synthetic products such as plastics and other lightweight materials. The several advantages offered by glass over other materials, which have served to reinforce its competitiveness over a long period of use spanning several centuries include exceptional chemical durability, multifaceted optical....


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