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Title Page

1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Statement of Research Problem
1.3       Need for the study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Aim and Objectives
1.5.1    Aim
1.5.2    Objectives
1.6 Research Methodology
1.6.1 Sketch Outline of the Research
1.7 Scope and Limitation
1.7.1 Scope
1.7.2 Limitation

2.1 Availability and Shortages of Construction Craft Skills
2.1.1 Demographic Trends of Construction Craft Skills Shortages
2.2 Efforts Aimed at Improving the Training of Construction Crafts Workers
2.2.1 Barriers and Challenges in Training Construction Craftsmen
2.2.2 Employers View on Cost of Training Construction Craftsmen
2.2.3 Benefits of Training
2.3 Main Issues in Craft Skills Training Programme
2.3.1 Funding of Construction Craft Skills Training
2.3.2 Trainers in Construction Craft Skills Training Programme
2.3.3 Assessment and Certification of Construction Craft Skills
2.3.4 Stakeholders of Construction Craft Skills Training
2.4 Concept of Training
2.5 Purpose of Training
2.6 Training Programme
2.7 Methods of Craft Skills Training in the Construction Industry
2.7.1 On-the- Job Training (OJT)
2.7.2 Apprenticeship Training
2.7.3 Formal (off-the-job) Vocational Training
2.8 Construction Industry Technical Training in Developing Economies
2.8.1 Challenges of Construction Technical Training in Developing Economies
2.9 Construction Industry Technical Training in Developed Economies
2.9.1 System of Craft Skills Training in the United Kingdom
2.9.2 System of Craft Skills Training in Germany
2.9.3 System of Craft Skills Training in Canada
2.9.4 System of Craft Skills Training in the United States
2.10 Components of Training Programmes
2.10.1 Education
2.10.2 Training
2.10.3 Practice
2.10.4 Experience
2.11 Training Frameworks     
2.11.1 Dual Training System (DTS)
2.12.2 The College-based Training System
2.12 Historical Development of Technical Education and Training in Nigeria
2.13 Technical Training Regulatory Organisations                
2.13.1 National Board for Technical Education
2.14 Organisations Providing Technical Training in Nigeria 
2.14.1 Federal Science and Technical Colleges (FSTCs)
2.14.2 State Technical Colleges (STCs) and Vocational Centers (including Business Apprenticeship Training Center (BATC)
2.14.3 Industrial Training Fund (ITF)
2.14.4 National Directorate of Employment (NDE)
2.15 Current Effort at Improving Technical Training and Qualification in Nigeria

3.1 Research Methodology    
3.1.1 Philosophical Position Adopted for this Research
3.1.2 Research Approach Adopted for this Research
3.2 Research Methods
3.2.1 Interview Design and Content
3.2.3 Sample Selection
3.2.4 Research Methods Adopted in the Study
3.3 Analytical Techniques and Strategies
3.3.1 Data Analysis Techniques
3.3.2 Interviews Data Analysis

4.1 Interviews with Construction Craft Skills Training Institutions‟ interviewees
4.1.1 Characteristics of the Interviewees and the Training Institutions
4.1.2 Entry Requirements
4.1.2 Existing Training Frameworks
4.1.3 Education of Construction Craft Skills
4.1.4 Training and Practice for Construction Craft Skills
4.1.5 Acquisition of Experience
4.2 Discussion of Results of the Interviews in Construction Craft Skills Training Institutions
4.2.1 Characteristics of Existing Training Frameworks
4.2.2 Education
4.2.3 Training and Practice
4.2.4 Experience
4.3 Interviews in Construction Organisations                       
4.3.1 Characteristics of the Construction Organisations and the Interviewees
4.3.2 Education
4.3.3 Training and Practice
4.3.4 Experience
4.3.5 Craft Skills Certificates Preferred by Employers
4.4 Interviews with Craftsmen in Construction Organisations         
4.4.1 Certificate Obtained upon Graduation
4.4.2 Relative Ease of Securing Employment upon Graduation
4.4.3 Education
4.4.4 Training and Practice
4.4.5 Experience
4.5 Discussion of Results of the Interviews with Construction Organisations‟ Respondents
4.5.1 Education
4.5.2 Training and Practice
4.5.3 Experience
4.6 Similarities, Differences, Strengths and Weaknesses of the Training Frameworks
4.6.1 Similarities of the Training Frameworks
4.6.2 Differences, Strengths and Weaknesses of the Existing Frameworks

5.1 The Proposed Framework                                    
5.1.1 Duration of Programme
5.1.2 Entry Requirement
5.1.3 Education, Training and Practice Stage
5.1.4 Experience Stage
5.2 Validation of the Harmonised Framework: Approach and Objectives
5.2.1 Characteristics of the Participants
5.2.3 Analysis and Discussions of the Focus Groups
5.2.4 The Adequacy and Relevance of the Various Components of the Framework
5.2.5 The Adequacy of the Recommended Ratio of the Institution to Industry Training
5.2.6 The Underlying Logic between the Components of the Framework
5.2.7 The Usefulness, Practicality and Applicability of the Proposed Framework
5.2.8 Strengths and Weaknesses of the Framework

6.1 Summary of Findings
6.2 Conclusion
6.3 Recommendations


Several studies on construction craft skills have identified a number of problems including ineffective training as responsible for shortages of craftsmen in the construction industry. In Nigeria, the problem of training craftsmen has been attributed to lack of a harmonised training framework. This research therefore examined existing training frameworks in craft skills training institutions and assessed the performance of the products of those institutions with a view to developing a harmonised framework for delivering effective training in Nigeria. Largely qualitative approach was adopted in conducting the research. Detailed literature review on training of craftsmen led to the development of a semi-structured interview guide which was used in conducting interviews in technical training institutions and construction organisations. In the technical institutions, senior management staff that specialised in technical training were interviewed while in the construction organisations, both management staff and craftsmen were interviewed. A total of six (6) training institutions were identified from a list of accredited technical training institutions published by the National Board for Technical Education and interviews conducted. For the construction organisations, nine (9) large construction firms were selected using purposive sampling and interviews were done with a management staff and three (3) craftsmen in each firm. Data obtained from the interviews were subjected to conceptual content analysis. The results showed the existence of different frameworks in each training institution with similarities, strengths and weaknesses. Other findings include the absence of direct collaboration between institutions and industry in delivering training; industrial training is poorly organised, supervised and the duration is inadequate; lack of prearrangement for the conduct of industrial training; training delivery is generic in most institutions regardless of the specific requirement of industries. Consequently, from the findings of the study, a harmonised framework for training construction craftsmen was developed which takes advantage of the strengths of the existing frameworks while minimising their weaknesses. The developed framework was validated using construction industry stakeholders. The study concludes that training of construction craftsmen can be delivered in a collaborative manner with all stakeholders in the construction industry performing roles based on their strategic advantage. It is recommended that sector specific technical training approach should be adopted and implemented in a collaborative manner for effective training; the developed framework for training of construction craftsmen should be adopted and implemented.


1.1 Background to the Study

The Construction Industry produces sky scrapers, roads, airports, ship yards, and several other structures. The production of these relies heavily on human and material resources. In terms of importance, Khalil and Lees (2006) ranked human resources higher than natural (material) and capital resources in both production and services process of an organisation. Additionally, Muya et al. (2006) argued that the quality of services offered by construction firms depend largely on the quality of their workforce. Furthermore, of the workforce in the construction industry, the craft skills constitute the majority and execute most of the jobs because the industry is still manual labour intensive (Fellows et al., 2002). Regrettably, this class of human resource required by construction firms are in short supply in UK, Canada, USA, Asia and Africa (Agapiou et al., 1995a; Agapiou, 1998; Gann and Senker, 1998; Mckenzie, et al., 2000, Forde and MacKenzie, 2004; Datoegoem, 2006; Issam, 2006; McGuinness and Bannett, 2006; Muya et al., 2006; Chan and Dainty, 2007; Smith, 2009; Abdullahi, 2010; Kikwasi, 2011; Medugu et al.,


In order to make up for the shortfall in craft skills required in the construction industry, construction firms import craft skills from other countries or poach them from rival companies to improve their performance and out-play their competitors instead of training new ones (Agapiou et al., 1995a; Muya et al., 2006). However, in both the developed and developing countries, poaching of skilled workmen is viewed as an indication of shortage of quality skilled workers in an industry and is reported to discourage investment in training by companies since most...........

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