DETERMINATION OF LABOUR OUTPUT ON WINDOWS AND DOORS FIXING IN KANO AND JIGAWA STATES NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.3 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH AIM
1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1.7 SCOPE
1.8 LIMITATIONS

CHAPTER TWO: LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction context
2.1.1 Labour Output
2.2 Differences between Productivity and Production
2.3 Productivity Variables
2.4 Construction Productivity
2.5 Factors affecting construction productivity:
2.6 Summary of factors affecting labour productivity
2.7 Introduction to work study
2.7.1 Background
2.7.2 Definition of work study
2.7.3 Aims of work study
2.7.4 Objectives of work study
2.7.5 Benefits of work study
2.7.6 work study techniques
2.7.7 Method study
2.7.8 The basic procedure for Method study
2.8 Work measurement
2.8.1 Uses of work measurement data
2.9 Work measurement techniques
2.9.1 Time Study
2.9.2 Timing
2.9.3 Rating
2.9.4 Factors affecting the worker’s rating
2.9.5 Normalizing/Basic tme
2.9.6 Allowances
2.9.7 Relaxation Allowance
2.9.8 Contingency Allowance
2.9.9 Standard time
2.9.10 Time study Equipment
2.9.11 Selection of operator to be studied
2.9.12 Activity sampling
2.9.13 Synthesis from standard and synthetic data
2.9.14 Analytical Estimating
2.10 Review of Previously Related Works on Labour output Determination

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
3.1 Research Design
3.1.1 Area of Study
3.2 Study Population
3.3 Research Sample and sampling Techniques
3.4 Instrument for data gathering
3.5 Validation and Reliability of the Instrument
3.6 Methods of Data Collection
3.6.1 Literature Review
3.6.2 Field Survey
3.7 Research Procedures
3.8 Pilot Survey
3.9 Data Analysis
3.9.1 Measurement of Output
3.9.2 Test of Differences in Labour Outputs

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS INTRODUCTION
4.1 Nature of the Research data
4.2 Data presentation
4.3 Windows
4.3.1 The effect of productivity factors in respect of labour output for 1500 x 1200mm window
4.3.2 The effect of productivity factors in respect of labour output for 1200 x 1200mm window
4.3.3 The effect of productivity factors in respect of labour output for 600 x 600mm window
4.4 Dors
4.4.1 The effect of productivity factors in respect of labour output for 1200 x 2100mm door
4.4.2 The effect of productivity factors in respect of labour output for 900 x 2100mm door
4.4.3 The effect of productivity factors in respect of labour output for 750 x 2100mm door
4.5       Summary of Outputs
4.6       Discussion of Results

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary of Findings
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
5.4       Areas for further study
5.5       Contributions to Knowledge
REFERENCES
APPENDIX



ABSTRACT


A major element in the success of the construction industry is the accuracy in construction project estimates. Previous researches have shown that most of the output constants used by estimators in the Nigerian construction industry are either derived from experience or are remnants of British colonial heritage. Hence, non-uniform outputs are widely used. The research is aimed at using work study approach to empirically establish labour output for doors and windows fixing in the Nigerian construction industry. A total of 30 construction sites were observed, 15 each for Kano and Jigawa States for three sizes of doors and three sizes of windows. The data collected were analyzed using inferential statistical analysis. The results of the analysis carried out established general average output values per day of; 12.00 nr, 13.00 nr and 16.00 nr casement windows sizes 1500 x 1200mm, 1200 x 1200mm and 600 x 600mm respectively. While 11.00 nr, 10.00 nr and 11.00 nr steel doors were established for sizes 1200 x 2100mm, 900 x 2100mm and 750 x 2100mm respectively. A two-tailed t-test analysis was used in assessing the influence of the labour productivity factors on the output of the workers observed. The inferential analysis revealed that mode of employment and experience, significantly affected workers output. Also the findings should serve as an effective baseline for contractors to exploit the output figures extracted according to productivity factors in order to optimize the productivity of their workers and profitability.




CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The efficiency of the construction industry is heavily reliant on its level of productivity. As noted by Adnan et al (2007), until the productivity level of construction activities is improved, the nation’s economy will continue to suffer setbacks. Hence, improving productivity has become a major concern of every profit-oriented organisation (Adnan et al,

2007). An important component of the construction industry productivity is labour. Labour costs represent a considerable proportion of the final cost of a building, usually accounting for between 40 to 60% of the building cost (Butchan et al, 1993). In addition, labour is known to be the most important factor of production since it is the only factor that creates value and sets the general level of productivity (Ameh and Odusami, 2002). According to Yates and Guhathakurta (1993), labour productivity is the value of gross output per worker, referred to as man-hour or work-hour. It also could be referred to as the careful attempts to measure the physical output of labour taking into account the other factors that affect construction productivity.

Recognising its importance, several studies have focused on the factors that affect labour productivity (Oloko, 1983; Lema, 1995; Yagba and Ayandele, 1999; Ameh and Odusami, 2002; Adnan et al, 2007; Kane et al, 2007). However, none of these studies provides an empirical evaluation of the level and extent of influence of these factors on the productivity of the Nigerian construction labour. Given the importance of such an issue, this research seeks to examine the influence of some productivity factors on labour outputs that were empirically established by the authors for some selected trades, and published elsewhere.

According to Ashworth (2002), the common method of estimating the costs of construction

works involves the multiplication of unit rates and the measured quantities in the Bills of

Quantities (BOQ). The calculation of the unit rates for the individual measured items in a

BOQ requires the collation of current cost information for labour, plant and materials, as well

as overhead and profit (Ayeni, 1999). The estimation of the cost figures of materials, plant

and overhead and profit has never been a point of discourse and contention. This is because

they involve the quantitative estimation of the cost values for plants and overheads while.......



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