DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MINI COPULA FURNACE AND AN ATOMIZER FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POWDERED METAL FROM WASTE ALUMINIUM CANS


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Plates

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1  Background of Study
1.2  Aims and Objectives of the Study
1.3  Problem Statement
1.4  Scope of  Research Project
1.5  Relevance of Study
1.6  Limitation of Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction to Aluminium and Aluminium Recycling
2.2 Introduction to Powder Metallurgy
2.2.1Historical Development
2.2.2 Atomization Process
2.2.3 Classification of Atomization process
2.2.4 Uses of Powder Metals
2.2.5 Some Common Metal Powder
2.3    Introduction to Atomizer
2.3.1 Classification of Atomizers
2.3.2 Atomizer Requirement
2.4    Introduction to Furnace
2.4.1 Types of Furnaces
2.4.2 Classification of Furnaces
2.4.3 Introduction to Copula
2.4.4 Parts of a Copula Furnace
2.4.5 Zones of Copula
2.4.6 Copula Operations
2.4.7 Efficiency of Copula Furnace
2.4.8 Advantages and Limitations
2.4.9 Limitations in Copula Furnace
2.5   Introduction to Refractory       
2.5.1 Refractory Definition
2.5.2 Classification of Refractory
2.5.3 Properties of Refractory
2.5.4 Types of Refractory
2.5.5 Selection of Refractory
2.5.6 Manufacture of Refractory
2.5.7 Functions and uses of Refractory
2.5.8 Uses of Refractories
2.6   Introduction to Coal
2.6.1 Uses of Coal
2.6.2 Refined Coal(Coke)
2.6.3 Production of Coke
2.6.4 Properties of Coke
2.6.5 Uses of Coke       
2.6.6 Advantages of Coal over other Forms of Energy

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2    The Design of Copula Furnace
3.2.1 Material Balance
3.2.2 Reaction Mechanism
3.2.3 Energy Balance
3.2.4 Enthalpy Change
3.2.5 Standard Heat of Reaction
3.3  Energy Balance for the Furnace
3.3.1 Combustion Chamber
3.3.2 Enthalpy of the Reaction
3.3.3 Standard Heat of Reaction      
3.3.4 Enthalpy of Flue Gases
3.3.5 The Design of the Furnace
3.3.6 Design of the Combustion Chamber
3.3.7 Design of the down Section of the Furnace
3.4 Design of an Atomizer
3.5 Costing and Safety Measures
3.5.1 Costing
3.5.2 Safety Measures
3.6  Materials of  Constructions

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS, OBSERVATION AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Results
4.2 Observations and Discussion
4.3 The Size of the Metal Powder produced
4.4 The Shape of Aluminum metal powder produced

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendations
REFERENCES
APPENDIX


ABSTRACT
This research is centered on the design and fabrication of copula furnace and atomizer for the production aluminium powder metal with the available material.0.4kg of refined coke was chosen as the basis for material and energy balance calculations and the design calculations performed from whose values are used to produce the design drawings. Mild steel was used for the internal linings of the furnace casing while other material were selected based on functionality, durability ,cost and local availability. The furnace and atomizer were assembled and the furnace inner wall of the casing was lined with refractory bricks made from heated mixture of kaolin, clay, sawdust and water after which the cylindrical shell was positioned. Testing was subsequently performed to evaluate the performance of the furnace and the atomizer by first gathering of the aluminum cans. The furnace was heated to 8700c and it was observe that the furnace has 36.9% efficiency which is within the acceptable value for furnace efficiencies. Atomizer produced various sizes of powder metal depending on the type of mesh used and the shape obtained  was irregular in shape.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1            Background of Study
Powder metallurgy is a technique concerned with the production of metal powders and converting them into useful shapes. It is a material processing technique in which particulate materials are consolidated to semi-finished and finished products. Metal powder production techniques are used to manufacture a wide spectrum of Metal powders designed to meet the requirements of a large variety of applications. Various powder production processes allow precise control of the chemical and physical characteristics of powders and permit the development of specific attributes for the desired applications. Powder production processes are constantly being improved to meet the quality, cost and performance requirements of all types of applications. Metal powders are produced by mechanical or chemical methods.
The most commonly used methods include water and gas atomization, milling, mechanical alloying, electrolysis, and chemical reduction of oxides.

The type of powder production process applied depends on the required production rate, the desired powder properties and the properties desired in the final part. Chemical and electrolytic methods are used to produce high purity powders while Mechanical milling is widely used for the production of hard metals and oxides. Atomization is the most versatile method for producing metal powders.........
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