DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD LABOUR IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Contents
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       The Research Problem
1.3       Aim and Objectives of Study
1.4       Research Hypothesis
1.5       Justification of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Concept of Child Labour
2.3       Socio-demographic Consequences of Child Labour Based on the Types of Work Engaged in
2.3.1   Socio-demographic Consequences of Child Labour in the industrial sector
2.3.2   Socio-demographic Consequences of Child Labour in the agricultural sector
2.3.3    Socio-demographic Consequences of Child Labour in the sales and service sector
2.4       Economic Consequences of Child Labour
2.5       Factors Responsible for Child Labour Practices
2.6       Child Labour and Future Workforce
2.7       Child Labour and Working Conditions

CHAPTER THREE: STUDY AREA AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       The Study Area
3.1.1    Location
3.1.2    Landforms and Drainage
3.1.3    Climate
3.1.4    Vegetation and Soil
3.1.5    Historical Background
3.1.6    Population, People, Religion, Culture and Settlement Pattern
3.1.7    Household Organization
3.1.8    Socio-Economic Activities
3.1.9    Infrastructural Facilities
3.2       Research Methodology
3.2.1    Reconnaissance
3.2.2    Type of Data Required
3.2.3 Sampling Techniques
3.2.4 Methods of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Demographic and Social Characteristics of Respondents
4.2.1    Age and Sex
4.2.2    Family Structure, Type of Household and Size of Household
4.2.3    State of Origin
4.3       Education
4.3.1    Schooling Status
4.3.2    Type of School and Level of Attained
4.3.3    School Drop outs and Those Who Have Never Been to School
4.3.4    Not Currently in School and the Reasons
4.3.5    Type of Work Engaged in and Reasons for Working
4.3.6Distribution of Respondent‟s Frequency of Work
4.3.7   Impact of Work on Leisure Time
4.3.8    Number of Hours Spent at Work Daily
4.3.9    Condition of Employment
4.3.10  First Age at Work by Distance Covered To and Fro Work
4.3.11 Monthly Income
4.3.12  Frequency of Time Visited Home
4.3.13  Feeding
4.3.14  Place of Residence
4.3.15  Exposure to Societal Ills
4.3.16  Social Vices Participated in and the effects on Mental Well-being
4.3.17  Negative Effects of Work on the Child Labourers
4.3.18  Health Conditions and the Nature of Sickness
4.4       Socio-economic Status of Parents
4.4.1    Parent‟s Marital Status
4.7.3    Educational Status of Parents
4.7.4    Occupational Status of Parents

CHAPTER FIVE: DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD LABOUR
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Type of Parent‟s Marital Union and Reasons for Engaging in Paid Jobs
5.3       Household Size and Reasons for Engaging in Paid Jobs
5.4       Reasons for Engaging in Paid Jobs and Parent‟s Survival status
5.5       Number of Hours Spent at Work and Selected Socio-economic Variables
5.6       Sex and Type of Work Engaged in by the Children
5.7       Age and Type of Work Engaged in
5.8       Sex and Academic Performance/Attainment
5.9       Age and School Grade Attainment
5.10     Sex and School Drop-outs
5.11     Sex and Health Consequences
5.12     Sex and Associated Danger of Child Labour Participation
5.13     Sex and Social/Mental Consequences of Child Labour
5.14     Monthly Income and Extents of Needs Met
5.16     Condition of Employment and Schooling Status
5.17     Working Days Per/Week and Working Hours
5.18     Place of Residence and Age at First Start of Work
5.19     Sex and Future Workforce

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATON AND CONCLUSION
6.1       Summary of Findings
6.2       Recommendations
6.2.1    Policy Proposal through Legislation
6.2.2    Policy Proposal through Poverty Alleviation
6.2.3    Policy Proposal through Education
6.3       Practical Actions
6.4       Suggestions for Further Research
6.5       Conclusion
            References
            Appendix



ABSTRACT

Child labour participation is inimical, contrary to the Rights of the Child, and threatens holistic child development, the families, State and the nation at large. This study assesses the demographic and socio-economic consequences of child labour in Anambra State, Nigeria.The objectives were to examine the type of work engaged in by the children, determine the factors responsible for child labour practices, identify the condition of work, assess the demographic and socio-economic consequences of child labour and lastly ascertain the specific possible impact of child labour on future workforce in the state. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the sampled areas in the study area as well as the respondents. A total of 400 children aged between 04-17 years, who are involved in labourious activities were administered a structured questionnaires to collect data. In addition, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was also conducted to gather information from child labourers employers. The data wasanalysed using computer SPSS software 19 version. The results are presented using tables and chats.The results indicated that 53.0% of the child labourers are males, child labour participation is found to be higher among older children aged 11-17 years than those aged 4-10. More than half of child labourersare from large household size of 5-9 persons. Out of the entire child labourers, 42.5% are indigenes of Anambra State and 35.0% from Ebonyi State, while the remaininghails from the other surrounding States. Educational status of child labourers shows that 56.5% are in school, while 43.5% are out of school, public school children are the most affected as 77.0% are in public schools, with 66.0% in primary school levels. Out of the entire sampled respondent, 174 (43.5%) are out of school, out of which 95.4% dropped out from school, while 4.6% have never been to school before. Poverty of parents accounted for the major reasons for child‟s school drop outs. About 73.5% of the child labourers work between 4-6 days a week. Most of the children (71.8%) spend more than 7 hours at work. On the working condition of the respondents, the study found that 50.0% of the child labourers work on temporal basis and the remaining work on either contract or permanent basis, 72.5% starts work at age between 4-10 years, the highest earned monthly income by the children is between 2001- 2500, 64.5% eats twice daily. The study found that 83.5% of the child labourers have encountered various types of dangers relating to the type of work they do. For instance as much as 42.5% have been physically assaulted, more worrisome is the fact that 44.0% and 20.0% have participated in social vices of such as alcohol drinking and drug abuse respectively, while 51.0% suffers from low self-esteem and 25.0% from alienation from friends/family/relation and as much as 87.0% have encountered health related challenges. The finding generally shows that household poverty which is caused by child‟s parent‟s low educational attainment and low occupational status accounted for the major reason why children joins labourious activities either to complement the family income or to pay school fees. The study therefore concludes that for child labour incidence to be curbed there is the need to empower parents with education and soft loans to enhance their business since majority of the parents are involved in various types of businesses, this expected to go a long way in reducing household poverty in the state. There is also the need to introduce a free and compulsory primary and secondary education for children of school going ages in the state as it will help to motivate the children to concentrate in school rather than combining school attendance with work due to the need to complement the school fees, which results to, reduced attendance, grade repetitions and the subsequent school withdrawal.




CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

According to the Child Right's Act 2003, passed into law in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, a child is a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years. On the other hand, labour according to Macmillan dictionary connotes the aggregate of all human physical and mental effort used in creation of goods and services. Put together, the concept of Child Labour has probably been in existence almost as long as the history of mankind and connotes all economic activities carried out by children regardless of their occupational status (Oloko, 1997). It includes both works that are permissible under the International Labour Organization's (ILO) conventions and that which is not (International Labour Organization-International Programme for the Elimination of Child Labour) (ILO-IPEC, 2002). According to United Nation Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF) (2007) Child labour is essentially understood as encompassing monetary or non-monetary activities which are mentally or physically, morally or socially hazardous for children below 15 years.

Across countries and societies, various forms of child labour exists these forms range from trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, child domestic labour and illicit activities. Other forms include street hawking, waste pickers, company labourers, apprentices, babysitting, barrow pushers and commercial drivers/ conductors/ touts, water vendors, farm workers, house maids, gardeners, cleaners, and other artisans. Some of which are done on contract basis, whereas, some are considered as free services to guardians or relatives who in return pays back in cash or kind to the child or the child‟s parent all of which are hazardous to child overall development (Oloko, 1997)....


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