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Title Page
List Cases
List of Statute
List of Abbreviation
Table of Contents

General Introduction
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Statement of Problem
1.3       Aims and objectives of this Study
1.4       Scope and limitation of the Study
1.5       Research Methodology
1.6       Literature Review
1.7       Organizational Layout

Analysis of the Nature and Scope of Contract for Sale of Land in Nigeria
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Types of Contract
2.2.1    Oral Contract
2.2.2    Open Contract
2.2.3    Formal Contract
2.3       Main Contents of a Formal Contract
2.3.1    Deposit
2.3.2    Balance of Purchase Money
2.3.3    Capacity of the Vendor
2.3.4    Vacant Possession
2.3.5    Fixtures and Fittings
2.3.6    Possession Before Completion
2.3.7    Insurance Pending Completion
2.3.8    Completion Date
2.4       Effect of Exchange of Contract
2.5       Rights and Obligation of the Parties Under the Contract
2.6   Advantages for entering into a formal Contract

Completion and Post Completion matters in contract of sale of land
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Post Completion Matters
3.2.1    The Requirement of Governor Consent
3.2.2    Stamping of Contract
3.2.3    Registration of

Remedies for breach of contract for sale of land
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Remedies Under Uncompleted Contract
4.2.1    Specific Performance
4.2.2    Damages
4.2.3    Rescission
4.2.4    Forfeiture of Deposit
4.2.5    Vendor and Purchaser Summons
4.2.6    Lien
4.3       Post Completion Remedies
4.3.1    Covenants for Title
4.2.2    Setting the Transaction Aside
4.2.3    Rectification
4.4       Effect of Breach of Contract
4.4.1    Innocent Party put to Election
4.4.2    Trivial Breach

5.1       Summary
5.2       Findings
5.3       Recommendations



1.1       Introduction

A contract of sale of land is the first stage in a conveyancing transaction by which the purchase acquires equitable interest on the property and legal interest in acquired later at the completion stage. Unfortunately, this important stage in conveyancing is usually ignored by Nigerians.

The parties must have capacity; there must be an offer, an acceptance, a consideration an intention to enter into a legally binding relationship, in addition to the above, the special nature of the commodity on sale makes the sale of land to be regulated very closely by common law, the general principles of equity. Customary law, and statutes. Conveyancing is a generic property or interest in real property from one party to another.

Sale or contract for sale of land is a major part of property law practice in Nigeria. In the process, interest in land is transferred from a party to another, it is not just a mere agreement to purchase such land or the payment of price, but a complete procedure which has to be followed such as, the agreement to transfer interest in land, agreement and the payment of agreed price.

The Collens Gem English Dictionary defines contract as “The entering into agreement formal document recording agreement or agreement enforceable by law1”.

In Nigeria there are two clear and distinct ways in which land is sold and title validly transferred following a sale.

(a) Through customary law or,

(b) Through received English law.

The two ways are distinct and mutually exclusive and it is important for a party claiming title to kind to show clearly, carefully, and fully the nature of the sale transaction in order to establish the applicable law to....

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