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Title Page
Table of Statutes
Table of Abbreviations
Table of Cases
Table of Content

Chapter One
General Introduction
1.1       Background to the Research
1.2       Statement of Research Problem
1.3       Aim and Objectives of the Research
1.4       Justification for the Research
1.5       Scope of the Research
1.6       Research Methodology
1.7       Literature Review
1.8       Organizational Structure of the Research

Chapter Two
The Development of Legal Policy and Institutional Framework ForAir Transport Industry in Nigeria
2.1       Introduction
2.2       History of the Aviation Industry in Nigeria
2.3       Legal Regulation of Air Transport Industry in Nigeria
2.3.1    International Regulation
2.3.2    National Regulation
2.4       Aviation Regulatory Agencies in Nigeria
2.4.1    International Regulating Bodies
2.4.2    National Regulating Bodies

Chapter Three
The Evolution and Nature of Bilateral Air Service Agreements
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Overview of Bilateral Air Service Agreements
3.3       Historical Evolution of Bilateral Air Service Agreements
3.4       Structure of Bilateral Air Service Agreements
3.5       Types of Bilateral Air Service Agreements
3.6       The Making and Implementation of Bilateral Air Service Agreements in Nigeria
3.6.1    Constitutional Background
3.6.2    The Process of Making Bilateral Air Service Agreements
3.6.3    Conclusion of Bilateral Air Service Agreements
3.6.4    Enforcement of Bilateral Air Service Agreements

Chapter Four
Bilateral Air Service Agreements between Nigeria and Some Selected Countries: Ghana, United Kingdom and Israel
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Analysis of Major Clauses in the Bilateral Air Service Agreements Between Nigeria and Ghana, United Kingdom, and Israel
4.2.1    Preamble Clause
4.2.2    Definition/Interpretation Clause
4.2.3    Grant of RightsClause
4.2.4    Designation and Operating Authorization Clause
4.2.5    Revocation and Suspension of Rights Clause
4.2.6    Certificate of Airworthiness and License Clause
4.2.7    Security Clause
4.2.8    Safety Clause
4.2.9    Commercial Opportunities Clause
4.2.10 Operating PrinciplesClause
4.2.11 Custom Duties Clause
4.2.12 User Charges Clause
4.2.13 Non-Discrimination Clause
4.2.14 Capacity/Frequency Clause
4.2.15 Tariff/Pricing Clause
4.2.16 Dispute Resolution Clause
4.2.17 Consultation Clause
4.2.18 Amendments Clause
4.2.19 Entry into Force Clause
4.2.20 Termination Clause
4.2.21Code Sharing Clause
4.2.22 Other Clauses
4.3 Problems/Challenges Faced and Future Prospects

Chapter Five
Summary, Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Summary
5.3       Findings
5.4       Recommendations
5.5       Conclusion



This dissertation is a Comparative Legal Analysis of Bilateral Air Service Agreements between Nigeria and Some Selected Countries. The countries considered here are Ghana, United Kingdom and Israel. The development of an international aviation industry has resulted in bilateral agreements playing an increasingly significant role as instruments of negotiation and cooperation between and among States parties. Before an airline can operate international air service to another country, the government must negotiate with the destination country‟s government. This is done under the terms of a bilateral air service agreement. To analyze the selected Air Service Agreements, this research adopts the doctrinal method and the empirical method. It starts with the writers attempt to give a foundation of bilateral air service agreements. There is also an attempt to trace the history of global bilateral air service arrangement. Then, the writer discussed the legal regulatory framework within which the air transport industry work in Nigeria.The ICAO standard format bilateral air service agreement covers such items as traffic rights, capacity, tariffs, designation, ownership and control etc. The research treats these terms in the context of Nigerian bilateral air service agreements with the above mentioned countries. Findings among others in the research revealed that Nigeria lacks a national air carrier or strong indigenous airline to operate the Nigerian side of the Agreement on designation. It is recommended among others that these terms should be defined by way of review of the said Agreements so as to avoid any dispute of interpretation. Nigerian should be more serious and more committed in its investment on the Nations aviation industry. A sound national air carrier should be established and the hitherto dilapidated aviation-related facilities should be fixed. This will enable the national air carriers to effectively operate the Nigerian side of its Bilateral Air Service Agreements on designation. The dissertation contains more revelations.


1.1              Background to the Study

The topic of this research is “Comparative Legal Analysis of Bilateral Air Service Agreements between Nigeria and Some Selected Countries. The selected Countries under review are: Ghana, United Kingdom and Israel. This Chapter explains the background structure of the research. It gives the statement of the research problem, the objectives of the research, the scope of the research, the research methodology, literature review and the organizational structure of the research work amongst other things.

Aviation is basically a transnational and border-crossing phenomenon, without which globalization (the flow of people and goods and the mixing of cultures) would have been difficult and the awareness that we all live on one planet could not have been established. The difference between this awareness and the ancient organizational principle of humans, the principle of national sovereignty is not completely clear. A group of people (a nation) live on a particular part of the earth (the national territory) and claim that this area is for them, and exercise legal power (government) over this area. This principle is known as „Sovereignty of Nations‟ or „Self-Determination of the
Peoples‟ and is based on the notion that human beings are organized into groups or......

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