ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF POWER OUTAGES ON COMMERCIAL CONSUMERS (A CASE STUDY OF COLDROOMS CONSUMERS AT TRANS-AMADI AREA, PORT-HARCORT)


For more Mechanical Engineering project click here



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1       Background of Study
1.1.1    Classification of Outages
1.1.2    Classification of Damages Caused By Electrical Power System
1.2       Statement of Problem
1.3       Aim and Objectives
1.4       Significance of Study
1.5       Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.1       Historical Emergence of Power Generation and Consumption in Nigeria
2.2       Historical Blackout in the World
2.3       Effect of Power Failure on Households
2.4       Effect of Power Failure on the Commercial Sector
2.5       Effect of Power Failure on the Industrial Sector
2.6       Power Generation Stations in Nigeria
2.7       Other Sources of Electricity
2.7.1    Solar Energy
2.7.2    Fossils fuel
2.7.3    Hydroelectric Energy
2.7.4    Nuclear Power
2.7.5    Wind Power
2.8       Statistical and Regression Modeling Tool
2.8.1    Frequency:
2.8.2    Mean:
2.8.3    Standard Deviation
2.8.4    Regression Analysis
2.9       Trans-Amadi community brief
2.10     Review of Past works

CHAPTER THREE: Methodology
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Description of the cases
3.2.1    Cold Room 1
3.2.2    Cold Room 2
3.2.3    Cold Room 3
3.2.4    Cold Room 4
3.2.5    Cold Room 5
3.3       Data collection

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion
4.1       Results of the Study
4.1.1    Standard Deviation Result
4.1.2   Cost Analysis of the Different Cold Rooms by Statistical Mean
4.1.3    Cost Regression Analysis Results
4.2       Discussions
4.2.1    Analysis of Customers Response
4.2.2    Cost Estimation Based on Customer's Perception
4.2.3    Standard Deviation Result
4.3       Cost Regression Analysis Results

CHAPTER FIVE: Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendations
REFERENCES
APPENDIX



ABSTRACT


The effects of electric power interruptions resulting from severe power outages were investigated and analyzed using five cold rooms as a case study. Two approaches have been developed and used. One is based on customers‘ survey that mainly investigates the preparatory actions that a customer may take to reduce the effect of outages. The other one is based on a mathematical model using standard deviation as a measure of dispersion. The spearman‘s correlation factor with the aid of visual basic program was used to X-ray the cost implication involved in running these cold rooms with the utilization of power supply from PHCN to be more economical than powering from individual power generating sets. Furthermore the regression cost analysis showed that cold room 1, cold room 2, cold room 3, cold room 4, and cold room 5 have a spearman correlation factor of 40.04%, 41.93%, 39.16%, 31.97% and 31.09% respectively, which shows how expensive the use of private power source over using PHCN, while the frequency distribution of power outages stood at a standard deviation of 3.78.




CHAPTER ONE



INTRODUCTION



1.1              Background of Study

Electric power interruptions occur when system capacity, due to severe power outages, is insufficient to meet the system load levels. During these periods of inadequacy, outage costs will be borne by the utility, its customers and perhaps, by' the entiresociety. The utility outage costs include loss of revenue, loss of future sales and increasedrepair expenditure and maintenance. These costs usually form only a smallpart of the total outages costs. The greater part is that borne by the consumers. Theoutage costs depend on many factors and situations, some of which are discussed inthe following sections. The problem of estimating outage costs is affected by the perceivedcosts of an electric outage and the point in time when a consumer would like tobuy electric energy but is unable to do so. Since there are different classes ofconsumers,each will tolerate loss of service differently. A residential consumer may suffer agreat deal of hardship if an outage occurs during a hot summer day or while he is engagingin domestic activities but it may be of little inconvenience to a commercialuser who is forced to close until power is restored. Also an outage may cause a greatloss to an industrial user if it occurs during the time of the production process. Therefore,consumers do not perceive service interruption to the same degree of hardship.The outage costs to a particular consumer depend also on the alternatives availableto that individual at the time of service interruption. If the outages are not expected,the consumer may have very limited alternatives and may incur a great loss. On theother hand, if an adequate warning is given, the losses may be averted or mitigated.Also, as an outage continues or spreads to a larger subset of society, the society costwill tend to increase and will include such indirect.....


For more Mechanical Engineering project click here


___________________________________________________________________________
This is a General Thesis for both Undergraduate & Postgraduate Studies. The complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigerian or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

PAYMENT  OPTION 1:
Kindly pay a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Skye Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Damilola
A/C No.:         1013708342

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679
After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, Teller No., and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed.


PAYMENT  OPTION 2:
You can make an online payment here for this material:


After a successful Online Web Payment, kindly Click Here to fill the “Payment Details Form”


--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.