ASSESSMENT OF EUTROPHICATION LEVEL OF MUNICIPAL SURFACE WATER, ABUJA NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of Contents
Abbreviations, Definitions and Symbols

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Causes of Eutrophication
1.1.1 Natural sources
1.1.2 Anthropogenic sources
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3       Aims And Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Factors Controlling Eutrophication
2.1.1 Algal bloom
2.1.2 Organic manure application
2.1.3 Water hyacinth invasion
2.1.4 Impact of erosion
2.2       Approaches to Controlling Eutrophication and Water Loss
2.2.1 Nutrient control
2.3       Urbanization and Eutrophication Profile

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Sampling Sites
3.2       Sample Collection and Preservation
3.3       Measurement of Physical Parameters
3.3.1 Temperature
3.3.2 Measurement of total dissolved solid
3.3.3 Measurement of conductivity
3.3.4 Measurement of chemical oxygen demand (Titrimetric method)
3.3.5 Measurement of pH
3.3.6 Measurement of biological oxygen demand (Titrimetric method)
3.3.7 Measurement of potassium
3.3.8 Determination of nitrate (Colorimetric method)
3.3.9 Determination of phosphate
3.4       Principles of Operation of Colorimeter DR/890

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION
5.1       BOD Concentrations
5.2       Nitrates
5.3       Total Dissolved Solid
5.4 Chemical Oxygen Demand
5.5       Conductivity
5.6       Temperature
5.7       Algae Count
5.8       pH Level
5.9       Phosphate
5.10 Potassium

CHAPTER SIX
6.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
6.1 Recommendations
REFERENCES
APPENDICES



ABSTRACT


The level of some nutrient elements in Abuja surface water were investigated for six months to determine the eutrophication profile and make logical inference on the fate of surface water system in the nearest future. Samplings were done monthly for a period of six months covering October to March and standard methods were used for the measurement of some nutrients constituting the indices of eutrophication. The results showed high levels of microbial activities. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) showed high levels of pollution which varied with time and velocity of water current. Other parameters investigated were chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate concentration, total dissolved solid (TDS), conductivity, algae count, temperature, pH, phosphate and potassium concentrations. Maximum and minimum values of some eutrophication parameters in the sites were recorded as follows: BOD ( Orozo 38mg/L- 7.37mg/L, Gidan Mangoro 31.2mg/L- 5.08mg/L, Nyanya 32.4mg/L- 10.05mg/L, Wuse 40.30mg/L- 7.007mg/L, Jabi 26.50mg/L- 3.10mg/L). Similarly total dissolved solid maximum and minimum values in the sites were given as Orozo 1222mg/L- 105.1mg/L, Gidan Mangoro 861.0mg/L-148.8mg/L, Nyanya 676.0mg/L- 127.6mg/L, Wuse 200.0mg/L- 86.2mg/L, Jabi 846.0mg/L-151.8mg/L. These results point to eutrophication indicators in Abuja surface water system. The results showed that the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium may be significantly increased beyond their compensation level by the growing human population in Abuja metropolis.




CHAPTER    ONE


1.0 INTRODUCTION


Eutrophication is the natural process whereby a confined water body (e.g. lake or dam) ages with time due to accumulation of silt or organic matter in the lake (Ademoroti, 1996).

A young lake is characterized by low nutrient level and consequently low plant productivity and at this stage is described as oligotrophic (few food) lake. The water body gradually acquires inorganic and organic nutrient from catchment areas and these promote aquatic growth and increased biological productivity causing the lake to become murky with decaying organic matter and phytoplankton. The water body is said to be eutrophic (well fed) and consequently, the decaying organic matter depletes its available oxygen. Increase in the accumulation of silt and organic matter, makes the water body shallower and sunlight penetrate slowly to the bottom, making the water warmer. Plants take roots along the shallow edges and the lake slowly transforms into a marsh or swamp which may eventually lead to dry land (Ademoroti, 1996).

Anthropogenic impact and seasonal climatic changes have aggravated eutrophication in water bodies worldwide. Advancement in science and technological innovation in agricultural practices has resulted in increased usage of natural and synthetic manures rich in phosphorus, potassium, and calcium in farming. These have accelerated the natural process of eutrophication worldwide. Nations of the world are conscious of the famous Malthusian economic theory and hence fight against this detrimental prediction by increasing food production through the construction of dams for irrigation and energy. Nations in arid regions are also making efforts to conserve their existing water resources to.....


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