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Title page

1.0 Introduction
1.1       Statement of Research Problem
1.2       Aim and Objectives
1.2.1 Aim
1.2.2 Objectives
1.3       Scope and Limitation
1.4       Justification of the Research
1.5 Location and Regional Setting of KUA
1.6       Climate
1.7       Topography
1.8       Natural Resources and Implication for Development

2.0 The Concept of Informal Urban Land Delivery System
2.1.0 Process of Informal Land Delivery
2.1.1 Local officials
2.1.2 Local residents
2.1.3 Land Brokers and local labourers (agents)
2.1.4 Speculators/Land buyers
2.1.5 Gatekeepers (Double agents)
2.2.0 Major Determinants of Informal Land Delivery System
2.3.0 Institutional Response Options to Informal Land Delivery: Overview
2.3.1 The Ethiopia Experience:
2.4.0 Dealing with Informal Land Delivery System
2.4.1 Recognition
2.4.2 Awareness and Identification
2.4.3 Assessment
2.5.0 Other approaches in Coping with Informal Land Delivery System in Cities
2.6.0   Promising measures to take: Applying the norms of good urban governance to land management in human settlements
2.6.1 Sustainability:
2.6.2 Subsidiarity:
2.6.3 Equity:
2.6.4 Efficiency:
2.6.5 Transparency and Accountability:
2.6.6 Civic Engagement and Citizenship:
2.6.7 Security:

3.0       Methodology
3.1       Data types and sources
3.2       Data requirement
3.2.1 Primary data
3.2.2 Secondary data
3.2.3 Population of the study area
3.2.4 Sample size
3.2.5 Sampling Technique
3.2.7 Data Collation and Analysis

4.0 Analysis of Result
4.1 The Nature and the Existing Characteristics of Informal  Land Delivery in KUA
4.1.2 Physical Analysis of the Study Area Land Supply Ratio between formal and informal sectors in KUA Size of Plots Supplied
4.2.0 Residents Response Analysis
4.2.1 Land Acquisition Process
4.2.2 Status of Tenancy
4.2.3 Period of Acquisition
4.2.4 Factor Influencing Choice of KUA for Residency
4.2.5 Channels of Plot Acquisitionin KUA
4.2.6 Channels of Information about the Availability of Land for Sale
4.2.7 Availability of Document Supporting Ownership Claims
4.2.8 Document Supporting Ownership of Plot
4.3.0 Analysis of Economic Challenges of informal Land Delivery System in KUA
4.3.1 Fund Raising Strategies Adopted by KUA Residents
4.3.2 Time Taken to Access Plot of Land after Payment
4.3.3 Average Cost of Plot at the Time of Acquisition
4.3.4 Payment of Commission to Land Agents
4.3.5 Percentage of Commission Paid To Land Agents
4.3.6 Patronage of Available Plot of Land for Sale
4.4.0 Analysis of Social Challenges of the Informal Land Delivery System
4.4.1 Dispute over Plots of Land Since Acquisition
4.4.2 Reason for Dispute Over Land
4.5.0 Analysis of Selected Stakeholders in the Informal Land Delivery Channel in KUA
4.5.1 Land Holding Families
4.5.2 Average no of Plots of Land sold per year
4.5.3 Average income generated from sale of land
4.5.4 Organizations to which taxes are made
4.6.0 Estate Developers Participation in Informal Land Delivery in KUA
4.6.1   Source of Land
4.6.2 Reasons for Patronage of the Informal Channels
4.6.3 Reliability of the Informal Channels of Land Delivery
4.6.4 Registration of Land with Relevant Government Agencies
4.6.5 Completion of Registration
4.6.6 Reasons for Non-Completion of Registration
4.7.0 Land Agents Activities in KUA
4.7.1 Mode of Operation
4.7.2 Employment Generated by the Companies
4.7.3 Average Income of Land Agents
4.8.0 Professionals Participation in the Informal Land Delivery System (ILDS) in KUA
4.8.1 Roles of Professionals in the Informal Land Delivery Process in KUA

5.1       Physical Manifestation of the Challenges of ILDS in KUA
5.2       Socio-Economic Challenges
5.2.1 Reasons and Factors that Influence Choice of KUA for Residential Development
5.2.2 Major Determinants of Land Supply in the ILDS of KUA and the Nature of such Plots
5.2.3 Information Channels in the ILDS of KUA/Nature of Documents Supporting Acquisition
5.2.4 Funding Strategies Adopted
5.2.5 Payment of Taxes over Land Purchased and Institutions in Receipt of Such Payments
5.2.6 The Intermediaries (Agents) as Life Wires of ILDS in KUA
5.2.7 Tenure Security
5.2.8 The Benefits: Overview
5.3.0 Challenges of informal land delivery channels to urban management in KUA
5.3.1 Physical Challenges
5.3.2 Economic Challenges
5.3.3 Social Challenges
5.4.0 Prospects of informal land delivery system in KUA

6.0 Summary
6.1       Conclusion
6.2       Recommendations
6.2.1 Partnership and cooperation with actors in the informal land delivery sector
6.2.2 Introduction of Local land manager at district levels
6.2.3 Land regularization
Appendix A


Difficulty of access to land through the formal land supply system has necessitated the shift to other options for accessing land in our cities. These are considered as Informal Land Delivery System (ILDS). Since land is the pedestal upon which the fabric of the city exists and operates, it is pivotal to an efficient and effective urban management. The research set out to: appraise the nature and existing characteristics of ILDS in Karu Urban Area (KUA), identify the urban management problems and prospects of ILDS in KUA, identify the strategies of coping with it, and make recommendations of intervention in the land delivery system for improvement of the urban management of KUA. Data collected and analyzed includes; land provided by the informal land delivery system in KUA, the roles of the actors in the system such as: number of plots sold by landholding households per year, average income generated per year, preference of the system by corporate developers, payment of taxes and levies, etc. The study revealed that approximately 6,396 Ha (63,960 plots of land, using standard measurement of 1000m2) were delivered through the ILDS. The landholding families supplied 74% of the plots of land. This has been accompanied with many challenges for the management of KUA. These include town planning, services and infrastructure provision constraints, etc. Conclusively, there is need to mitigate the challenges as KUA grows into a metropolis with complex uncoordinated systems. Recommendations were made for integrating the land supply systems towards effective urban management and sustainable KUA.



1.0 Introduction

Land is the foundation of all forms of human activity. From it we obtain the food, shelter and the space to work and relax. Land is amongst man‟s most valuable resources. It is a means of life on which our continued existence and progress depends.

The way and manner through which people acquire land for use vary from one country to another. In Nigeria, before 1978 each region of the country operated different forms of land tenure. The Landuse Decree of 1978 became an instrument of the formal process of access to land by vesting the control of all land with the government.

In many third world cities, urban land can either be obtained formally or informally and the informal sector provides much more land to seekers than the formal sector. Yet the workings of the informal land sector are usually ignored, and are hardly understood or documented.

The rapid growth of urban areas increases demand for land. Statutory methods of land allocation have not adequately met the demand for land for all the income groups. Other informal methods of acquiring land gradually grew into prominence to meet the demand. Several actors participate in this process; including state and local governments, traditional rulers, land agents, landholding households, etc. The response of the informal sector to the ever increasing demand for land, largely for commercial and residential use, has been associated with the sale and subdivision of farm plots, resulting into a complex land management system. Appraisal of this situation has been widely suggested as necessary for improvement as has been attempted in many countries....

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