ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTY OF THE HEXANE EXTRACT FROM THE PODS OF ACACIA NILOTICA (L.) DEL. (MIMOSACEAE)


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of contents
Abbreviations

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
1.1Plants and medicine
1.2 Traditional medicine
1.3 African Traditional Medicine (ATM)
1.4 Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
1.5 Challenges in Medicinal plants research
1.5.1 The role of plants in human history
1.5.2 The role of plant-derived compounds in drug development
1.5.3 Plants as sources of antimicrobial agents
1.5.4 Statement of research problem
1.5.5 Justification
1.6.1 Hypothesis
1.6.2 General aim
1.6.3 Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Botanical description of Mimosacea
2.2 Economic and medicinal importance of Mimosaceae family
2.3 Chemistry of acacia specie
2.4 Description of Acacia nilotica
2.5 Chemistry of Acacia nilotica
2.6 Some economic importance of Acacia nilotica

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and method
3.1 Equipments used
3.2 Collection and identification of plant material
3.3 Preparation of plant material
3.4 Extraction of plant material
3.5 Chromatographic studies
3.5.1 Solvents used
3.5.2 TLC solvent system
3.5.3 TLC spray reagent
3.5.4 TLC profiles of crude extract
3.5.5 Column chromatography of crude extract
3.5.5.1 Determination of melting point of compound CY2
3.5.5.2 Spectroscopic analysis
3.5.5.3 Antimicrobial studies
3.5.5.4 Preparation of stock solution
3.5.5.5 Media for microbial growth
3.6. Zones of inhibition
3.6.1 Minimum inhibitory concentration
3.6.2 Minimum Bactericidal Concentration/ Minimum Fungal Concentration

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results
4.1 Extraction
4.2 TLC Profiles of crude extract
4.3 Melting point of compound CY2
4.4 Spectroscopical properties of compound CY2
4.5 Results of the Antimicrobial studies

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion

CHAPTER SIX
6.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Summary
6.2 Conclusion
6.3 Recommendation
REFERENCES




ABSTRACT

Acacia niloticais a multipurpose plant belonging to the family Mimosaceae. Commonly known as Prickly acacia in English and Bagaruwa in Hausa, It has medicinal properties which include antimalaria, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, etc. Traditionally, the pods are used for stomach disorder, foot and mouth disease, sore throat, dysentery, among others. This research was aimed at isolating from the pod of this plant and testing for its antimicrobial activity which will justify the claim for its usage. The pods were extracted using n-hexane and the extract was subjected to column chromatography which afforded a compound tagged CY2 which was analysed by spectroscopical means and suggested to be

Pentacosane-dioic acid. Antimicrobial studies of the crude extract and the isolated compound against some pathogens were conducted and compared with standard drugs (Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole). The result showed that the pod have antimicrobial activities, five bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Strptococcuspyrogenes, Eschericia coli, Shegiliadysenteriae, Salmonella typhi,) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans) were susceptible to both the crude extract and the isolated compound, The isolated compound tend to have a higher activity compared to the crude extract but not as potent as the control drugs used which showed better activity among all the microbes used. A bacteria strain (Corynebactoriumulcerans) and a fungal strain (Candida krusei) among the test organisms tend to be resistant to the crude extract as well as the isolated compound.




Chapter one


1.0                                                                                Introduction


1.1 Plants and Medicine


Plants used in the treatment of diseases are as old as civilization (Fabricant and Farnsworth, 2001) and traditional medicine is still a major part of habitual treatments of different maladies (Alviano and Alviano, 2009). This plant-based traditional medicine system continues to play an essential role in health care, with about 80% of the world’s inhabitants relying mainly on traditional medicines for their primary health care (Christiana etal., 2012). Plants are considered as one of the main sources of biologically active materials. It has been estimated that about 50% of the prescription products in Europe and USA are originating from natural products including plants or their derivatives (Cordell, 2002; Newman et al., 2003).In spite of the recent domination of the synthetic chemistry as a method to discover and produce drugs, the potentials of bioactive plants or extracts to provide new and novel products for disease treatment and prevention is still enormous (Raskinetal., 2002). One of the most challenging pursuits in the realm of pharmaceutical and medical sciences is the search for newer and more potent drugs with little side effects, self-administrable, less expensive and completely reversible. Most of these properties are observed in drugs plants of natural origin. Medicinal plants, which form the bedrock of traditional medicine, have in the last few decades been the subject of very intense pharmacological studies (Unnyet al., 2003).

 Whole plants or plant parts are used in traditional medicinal system where the synergistic effects of many constituents are evaluated on the whole human body inflicted with diseases (Rao, 2001). New drugs formulated on basis of organic chemistry and biochemistry-focuses.....

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