ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC POTENTIAL OF VITEX DONIANAETHANOLEXTRACTS ON POLOXAMER 407 INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC AND NORMAL RATS


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Statement of Research Problem
1.2       Justification
1.3       Aims of the Study
1.3.1    Specific objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Vitex Doniana
2.1.1    Habitat/Distribution
2.1.2    Botanical classification
2.1.3    Chemical constituent
2.1.4    Uses
2.2       Polyphenols
2.2.1    Classes
2.2.2    Extraction
2.2.3    Pharmacological action/effect
2.3       Hyperlipidemia
2.3.1    Definition
2.3.2    Classes
2.3.3    Etiology
2.3.4    Diagnosis
2.3.5    Treatment
2.3.6    Experimental model of hyperlipidemia
2.3.7    Hyperlipidemia and liver
2.3.8    Hyperlipidemia and kidney
2.3.9    Hyperlipidemia and hematological parameters

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Materials
3.1.1    Plant materials
3.1.2    Chemicals/Reagents
3.1.3    Equipment
3.1.4    Experimental animals
3.2       Methods
3.2.1    Extraction
3.2.2    Phytochemical screening of the plant
3.2.3    In vitro screening of the extracts
3.2.4    In vivo biological activity of extracts
3.2.5 Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the extract
3.2.6Acute toxicity study
3.2.7    Induction of hyperlipidemia
3.2.8    Animal grouping
3.2.9Collection and preparation of samples
3.2.10  Determination of serum lipid profile
3.2.11  Determination of biochemical parameters
3.2.12  Determination of in vivo antioxidant activity
3.2.13 Statistical analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       RESULTS
4.1 Phytochemical Screening of VitexDoniana
4.2In Vitro Screening of the Extracts
4.3 In Vivo Biological Activity of Extracts
4.4Quantitative Phytochemical of EthanolicExtract
4.5Lethal Dosage (LD50) of the Ethanolic Extract
4.6Lipid Profile           and Atherogenic Predictor Indices
4.7Liver Marker Enzymes and Function Parameters
4.8Kidney Function Parameters and Packed Cell Volume
4.9Body Weight
4.10In Vivo Antioxidant Activity

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX
6.0       SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1       Summary
6.2       Conclusion
6.3       Recommendation
            REFERENCES
            APPENDICES



ABSTRACT


Anti-hyperlipidemic potential of extracts (aqueous, 70% methanol, 70% ethanol and 70%, acetone) of Vitexdoniana leaves, stem bark and root bark on poloxamer 407 induced hyperlipidemic and normal rats was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and tannins in the leaves, stem bark and root bark. The average total polyphenol contents of the leaves ethanol (36.11±3.13mg/g gallic acid) and methanol (35.75±1.72mg/g gallic acid) extracts were significantly (p<0 .05="" acetone="" and="" aqueous="" compared="" extracts.="" higher="" ic="" of="" span="" that="" the="" when="" with="">50of the leaves ethanol extract (0.227mg/ml) was lowerthan that ofstem bark ethanol extract (0.236mg/ml) and root ethanol extract (0.561mg/ml). Screening the extracts for the most potent anti-hyperlipidemicactivityreveals that ethanolic extracts of root bark and leaveshas the highest percentage reduction of total cholesterol (51.98%) and triacylglycerol (50.75%) respectively. The most abundant phytochemical in the most potent extract is flavonoid (4.605±0.077%) in the leaves and the least is tanins (0.035±0.008%) in the root bark extract. The LD50 of both leaves and stem bark was greater than 5000mg/kg body weight and that of root bark was 948.68 mg/kg body weight. Hyperlipidemic control rats significantly (p<0 .05="" a="" all="" and="" andsignificantly="" c="" cholesterol="" compared="" decreased="" density="" factor="" groups.atherogenic="" hdl-c="" high="" higher="" increased="" induced="" ldl-c="" level="" levels="" lipoprotein="" log="" low="" lower="" no="" of="" other="" p="" ratio.="" rats="" risk="" shows="" significant="" there="" to="" total="" treated="" triacylglycerol="" was="">0.05) change between normal control rats and normal treated rats in lipid profile parameters and atherogenic indices. The level of liver marker enzymes (ALT, ALP, AST) and liver function parameter (TB, IB) were significantly (p<0 .05="" a="" activity="" all="" and="" antioxidant="" bark="" both="" cat="" compared="" control="" db="" extract="" extractsactivity="" groups.="" groups="" higher="" hyperlipidemic="" i="" in="" induced="" invivo="" kidney="" leaves="" level="" levels="" liver="" lower="" lowers="" normal="" of="" other="" p="" rats="" show="" shows="" significant="" significantly="" sod="" stem="" study="" tbars="" that="" the="" to="" treated="" when="" with="">vitexdoniana
possesses anti-hyperlipidemic potential.




CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Polyphenols are natural organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large number of phenol structural units (Quideauet al., 2011). The most research-informed and chemistry-aware definition of polyphenol is termed the White–Bate-Smith–Swain– Haslam (WBSSH) definition (Haslam and Cai, 1994) which describes the polyphenol as moderately water-soluble compounds, with molecular weight of 500–4000 Dalton,having more than 12 phenolic hydroxyl groups and with 5–7 aromatic rings per 1000 Da.The number and characteristics of the phenol structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological properties of a particular member of the polyphenol class(Quideau et al., 2011).

Over the past 10 years, researchers and food manufacturers have become increasingly interested in polyphenols. The main reason for this interest is the recognition of the antioxidant properties of polyphenols, their great abundance in our diet, and their probable role in the prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. As the major active substance found in many medicinal plants, itmodulates the activity of a wide range of enzymes and cell receptors.Polyphenols as antioxidants, helps in addressing and reversing the problems caused by oxidative stress to the walls of arteries, create a heart-healthy environment by curbing the oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol which stops the potential for atherosclerosis, and they help relieve chronic pain, as seen in conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. In addition to having....


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