ANAEMIA AND PARASITIC INFESTATIONS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN LIVING IN URBAN SLUMS OF ASOKORO DISTRICT, FCT, NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Acronyms

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background
1.2       Statement of Problem
1.3       Justification
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       General Objective
1.6       Specific Objectives

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Anaemia
2.2       Parasitic Infestations
2.3       Nutrition
2.4       Conceptual Framework

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Study Area
3.2       Study Design
3.3       Study Population
3.4       Sample Size Determination
3.5       Sampling Technique
3.6       Study Instrument
3.7       Data Collection Methods
3.8       Data Management
3.9       Laboratory Analysis
3.10     Variables
3.11     Definitions
3.12     Data Analysis
3.13     Quality Assurance
3.14. Dissemination Plan
3.15     Ethical Considerations
3.16     Limitations of the study


CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS


CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1       Conclusion
6.2       Recommendations
References
Appendices



SUMMARY

Anaemia is a public health problem that affects about 2 billion people worldwide. It is highly prevalent in developing countries with its prevalence; three to four times higher than that of developed countries as 53% school-age children estimated to be suffering from anaemia. In Nigeria, the prevalence ranges from 38.6% in Edo State to 82.6% in Abia State. The consequences include cognitive and growth impairment, increased morbidity from infectious diseases and reduced work capacity. Parasitic infestations like malaria and helminthiasis are major contributors to the development of anaemia in children in developing countries, most especially in areas where basic infrastructural amenities are lacking and the standard of living of is poor. The objective of this study was to determine the association between anaemia and parasitic infestations and the effect of nutritional and socioeconomic status on them among primary school children living in urban slums of Asokoro District, FCT.

A cross-sectional study was conducted on 318 primary school children aged 5-15 years. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information on socio-demographics and history of drug use. Blood samples were collected for haemoglobin estimation and malaria parasite examination. Stool and urine samples were also examined for parasites. Anthropometric measurements were taken for the calculation of nutritional indices. Data were analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.3 for descriptive statistics and to calculate prevalence odds ratio to identify independent variables that are statistically associated with anaemia at significance level of 5%.

Of the 318 school children, 171 (53.8%) were females, the mean age, weight and height were 10.4±2.3 yrs, 29.1±7.7 kg and 135.7±2.1 cm respectively. Ninety-one (28.6%) were anaemic, out of which mild anaemia was 64 (20.1%), 26 (8.2%) was moderate anaemia and only 1(0.3%) was severe anaemia. The malaria parasitaemia prevalence rate was 129 (40.6%). The overall stool parasite prevalence was 20 (6.3%) and 9 (2.8%) for helminthic parasites. Prevalence rates of underweight and stunting were 20.8% and 20.1% respectively as males were more likely to be underweight (OR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.23-1.72). Father’s occupation was significantly associated with anaemia (OR 1.89; 95% CI: 1.12-3.13) and presence of any stool parasite was significantly associated with anaemia (OR 0.12; 95% CI: 0.02-0.92).

Anaemia was significantly associated with parents’ socioeconomic status and the presence of stool parasites in the stool. It is recommended that the school health programme should be upscaled to include provision of safe water, hygienic practices and environmental sanitation in a sustainable manner and active adoption of these practices by the children. Further studies on other causes of anaemia (such as nutritional deficiencies and haemoglobinopathies) are also recommended.




CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background

The establishment of Abuja as a new Federal Capital Territory (FCT) in the 1970s resulted in the emergence of slums co-existing with well planned residential and administrative areas. United Nations Human Settlement Programme (UN-HABITAT) defines a slum household as a group of individuals living under the same roof in an area who lack one or more of the following: durable housing of a permanent nature that protects against extreme climate conditions; sufficient living space, which means not more than three people sharing the same room; easy access to safe water in sufficient amounts at an affordable price; access to adequate sanitation in the form of a private or public toilet shared by a reasonable number of people and security of tenants that prevents forced evictions.1 Nearly 327 million people were projected to live in slums in Commonwealth countries and almost one in every sixth citizens. In a quarter of Commonwealth countries (11 African, 2 Asian and 1 Pacific), more than two out of three urban dwellers live in slums.2 It is projected that by 2030, close to 1.7 billion of the expected 3.93 billion urban dwellers in low-income and middle income countries will be living in slums.2 The situation is not different in Nigeria, where a recent report by United Nations documented that about 96.6 million (69%) of Nigerians live in slums.3

Low skilled artisan workers needed for the construction work in FCT reside in urban slums that are bereft of basic infrastructure. These slums are as a result of inadequate town planning, budgetary allocation and legislation to cater for urban poor and are therefore bereft of infrastructural provisions. Poor sanitation, non-existent organized waste disposal and vector control are some factors enabling the spread of infectious diseases including parasitic infestations. Anaemia is a common complication of infestation by these parasites; which is as......


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