A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ARTIFICIAL HUMAN REPRODUCTION: AN ISLAMIC LAW PERSPECTIVE


For more Islamic Law Project click here



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Abbreviations
Table of Statutes
Table of Cases
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE:
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Research Problem(s)
1.3       Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.4       Significance of the Study
1.5       Scope of the Study
1.6       Methodology
1.7       Literature Review
1.8       Organizational Layout

CHAPTER TWO
NATURE AND PHILOSOPHY OF ARTIFICIAL HUMAN REPRODUCTION
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Meaning and Nature of Artificial Reproduction
2.2.1    Artificial Insemination
2.2.2    In-vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
2.2.3    Sperm Donor/Ova Bank
2.2.4    Artificial Embryonation/Embryo Adoption
2.2.5    Surrogate Parenting
2.2.5.1 Juridical Views on Surrogacy
2.2.5.2 Ethical Issues on Surrogacy
2.2.5.3 The Legal Position of Surrogacy in Other Jurisdictions
2.2.6    Human Cloning
2.2.7    Ectogenesis
2.2.8    Genetic Engineering
2.3       The Causes of Infertility and Philosophy of the Concept of Artificial Reproduction
2.3.1    The Causes of Infertility
2.3.2    The Philosophy of the Concept of Artificial Reproduction Methods
2.4. An Examination of the Procedures Involved in ART
2.4.1 The Processes of In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
2.4.2 The Procedures of Artificial Insemination (AI)
2.4.3 Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection
2.4.4 Gamete or Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer
2.4.5 Surrogacy
2.4.6 Post-Humous Conception (PHC)
2.4.7 Cryogenic Preservation
2.5       The Legal Position in Nigeria
2.5.1    The Constitutional Requirements for Implementing International Treaty in Nigeria

CHAPTER THREE:
ARTIFICIAL HUMAN REPRODUCTION: AN ISLAMIC LAW PERSPECTIVE
3.1       Introduction
3.2       General Overview on the Perspective of Islamic Law on ART
3.3       Islamic Position on the Use of ART by Fertile Men and Women
3.4       Surrogacy in Islamic Law Perspective
3.5       The Position of Islamic law on Artificial Insemination
3.6       The Position of Islamic Law on Procedures of In-vitro Fertilization
3.7       The Position of Islamic Law on Sperm Donor/Ova Bank
3.8       The Position of Islamic Law on Ectogenesis
3.9       The Position of Islamic Law on Artificial Embryonation/Embryo Adoption
3.10   The Position of Islamic Law on Egg Transfer
3.11 Islamic Perspective on the Procedures of ART

CHAPTER FOUR:
THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN VIS-À-VIS PARENTS IN RELATION TO ARTIFICIAL HUMAN REPRODUCTION UNDER ISLAMIC LAW
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Right to Lineage (Nasab)
4.2       Right to Suckling (Rada’a)
4.4       Child‟s Right to Inheritance (Waratha)
4.5       Child‟s Right to Custody (Hadana)
4.6       Child‟s Right to Maintenance (Nafaqa)

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
5.2       Summary
5.2       Findings
5.3       Recommendations
            Bibliography



ABSTRACT

Reproductive rights attained recognition at the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) with the proclamation that reproductive rights embraces “the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health and the right to make decisions on reproduction free from discrimination, coercion or violence” to the effect that women should be free to decide whether and when to have children, exercise their choices without coercion, and be able to obtain the best reproductive health care available, regardless of their personal circumstances. Reproductive rights therefore, has generated intense discourse and ignited controversies that really seem to dissect all human endeavours. Muslim as an integral part of this discourse have had recourse to Islamic Law to show how it differs from these so-called reproductive rights as enshrined in the various conventions especially the use of artificial methods in human reproduction as they affect the rights and responsibilities between the parents and the resulting child. This research work is particularly concerned with the right to reproductive self-determination especially as represented by the concept of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) which is methods used via scientifically assisted means of possessing progeny. However, the principal aim of this study is to analyze the Islamic perspective to ART and doctrinal methodology was adopted in the study. Thus, study has attempted an analysis on the concept of Artificial Human Reproduction (AHR) with particular reference to its legal position in Islamic law. It has been highlighted that only certain artificial human reproduction methods can lawfully stand under Islamic law, i.e., artificial insemination and in-vitro fertilization on condition that they are to be used as a form of infertility treatment. Thus, Islamic law has provided for the need as well as the legality of employing ART to cure infertility ailment. The study found that ART methods have challenged the traditional notion of the family. They assault the meaning of parenthood by transforming procreation into reproduction and manufacturing of children. These techniques bring about the problem of legitimacy (Nasaba) of the resulting child, right to inheritance (waratha) and maintenance (nafaqa), custody (hadhana) and fosterage (radha’a) - all of which arise out of kinship or legitimate relations. In view of the legal challenges posed by ART, it has been opined that certain methods such as surrogacy could cause confusion under Islamic law as to the determination of the rights of the child towards its parent and the corresponding responsibilities of the parents towards their children respectively. Consequently, it has been amply recommended that as far Islamic law is concerned, couples are not on a freelance of their own to seek to alleviate their infertility problem by all means possible through surrogacy but regard must be heard to the established principles of the sharia on the integrity of the institution of marriage. Thus, neither the contractual agreement of the couples nor the wishes of the parties to procreate artificially could be allowed to alter the established principles of the sharia on the preservation of lineage just to satisfy infertility grief.




CHAPTER ONE:
GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background of the Study

The coming into being of the United Nations Organization (UNO)1 as ushered in the

UN Charter considers men and women to have equal rights.2  It also brought the UN‟s

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)3 as the pioneer international instrument to out rightly forbid discrimination against women. However, the concept of reproductive rights was initiated at the international conference on human right in Tehran.4 It was at this very conference that parents were said to have a basic human right to determine freely the number and spacing of their children.

It was in the year 1979 that, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) was adopted by the UN5 and it constituted a committee on CEDAW to ensure compliance with the provisions of the Convention. This committee in its year 2000 reproductive rights report, while making a general recommendation on women and health, declares that state parties should ensure universal access for all women to a high quality and affordable health care including sexual and reproductive health services.

Moreover, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Charter elaborated the above to mean infertility treatment and quality contraceptive among other things. Article I and 16 of CEDAW and the provisions of the IPPF and International Convention on Population and Development (ICPD) provide that, women are to enjoy these rights irrespective of their marital status. Article 2 requires state parties to abolish existing laws, regulations, customs and practices that discriminate against women....


For more Islamic Law Project click here


___________________________________________________________________________
This is a General Thesis for both Undergraduate & Postgraduate Studies. The complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigerian or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

PAYMENT  OPTION 1:
Kindly pay a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Skye Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Damilola
A/C No.:         1013708342

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679
After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, Teller No., and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed.


PAYMENT  OPTION 2:
You can make an online payment here for this material:


After a successful Online Web Payment, kindly Click Here to fill the “Payment Details Form”


--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.