A CONVERSATION ANALYSIS OF “TURN-TAKING” IN THE ELECTRONIC MEDIA: A CASE STUDY OF AFRICA INDEPENDENT TELEVISION’S MÌNÌJỌ̀JỌ̀


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0Background to the Study
1.1       Statement of the Research Problem
1.2       Research Questions
1.3       Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.4       Justification for the Study
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope and Delimitation of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0       Preamble
2.1       Conceptual Review
2.1.1Conversation Analysis: A Historical Sketch
2.1.2Conversation Analysis as a Field of Language Study
2.1.3Conversation Analysis versus Discourse Analysis
2.1.4Theory of Turn-Taking
2.1.5 Criticisms of the Theory of Turn-Taking
2.1.6Turn-Taking in Yorùbá Conversations
2.1.6.1Politeness
2.1.6.2 Honorific Pronoun
2.1.6.3 Greeting
2.1.6.4Proverbs
2.1.6.5 Kinship Terms
2.1.6.6 Prayer
2.1.7Turn-Taking Rules in Yorùbá Conversations
2.1.7.2 Interruption/ Overlapping
2.1.7.3 Adjacency Pairs
2.1.7.4 Back Channel Communication
2.1.7.5 Silence
2.1.7.6 Repair
2.1.7.7 Non-Verbal Communication
2.2       Review of Previous Studies on Turn-Taking
2.3       Theoretical Framework of Analysis
2.4       Summary

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0       Preamble
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Setting
3.2.1    The Media Setting
3.3       The Subject of the Study
3.4       Data Gathering Procedure
3.5       Research Instruments (Methods)
3.5.1    Disguised Observation
3.5.2    Audio Recording
3.5.3    Video Recording
3.6       Analytical Procedure
3.6.1    Transcripts
3.6.2    Structural Analysis
3.6.3    Ethno methodological Analysis Procedure

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0       Preamble
4.1       Data Presentation
4.1.1O Opening
4.1.2    Middle
4.1.3    Closing
4.2       Data Analysis
4.2.1    Turn Allocation Component/Technique
4.2.2    Interruption/ Overlapping
4.2.3    Adjacency Pairs
4.2.4    Back Channel Communication
4.2.5    Silence
4.2.6    Repair
4.2.7    Non-Verbal Communication
4.3       General Discussion
4.4       Research‘s Contribution to Knowledge

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0       Preamble
5.1       Summary of Findings
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendation
REFERENCES
APPENDIX



ABSTRACT

Turn-Taking in conversation varies from one language to another because Turn-Taking is usually bound by natural etiquettes attributable to the people‘s culture. Turn-Taking in Yorùbá conversation is no exception. It reflects to a large extent the culture of the Yorùbá People. Hitherto, politeness, honorific pronouns, greeting, proverbs, prayer etc. are major factors in Yoruba Turn-Taking. The major preoccupation of this work, however, is to examine how Yorùbá people take turns especially in a media settingwhere the interlocutors express themselves in their local dialects on weekly discussion topics. The greatest influence on this work is Sacks et al. (1974). Not only did Sacks and his associates pioneer the field of Conversation Analysis, their many discoveries about how interlocutors take turns successfully are still very relevant. The uniqueness of this research, however, lies in the analysis of Turn-Taking in Yorùbá conversation in juxtaposition with Sacks et al.‘s Turn-Taking which focuses only on how interlocutors take turns in American English conversation. The subject of this research is the audience of Mìnìjọ̀jọ̀, a weekly Yorùbá discussion programme which airs on Africa Independent Television (AIT) on Sundays between 1pm and 2pm. The audience comprises of speakers of major Yorùbá dialects like the Ìjẹ̀bú, Ìjèṣà, Ẹ̀gbá, Èkìtì, Ìbàdàn and Oǹdó dialects. Through disguised observation (with the permission of the producer of the programme) as well as audio and video recordings, the data for this research were collected, transcribed according to Conversation Analysis methods and then analysed. During the analysis, one very important finding is that some Turn-Taking rules are exempted in a media setting because certain media ethics override such Turn-Taking rules in Yorùbá conversation. It is of interest, however, to discover that proverbs in most Yorùbá conversations form Adjacency pairs and at other times, overlapping utterances. In all, this research presents how Turn Allocation Component/Technique, Interruption/ Overlapping, Adjacency Pairs, Back-Channel Communication, Silence, Repair and Non-Verbal Communication operate in Yorùbá conversation. It is hoped that this work contributes to subsequent researches on Yorùbá Turn-Taking since there are very few literatures that address Turn-Taking as an important aspect of Yorùbá conversation.




CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background to the Study

As far as human relationship is concerned, conversation is an essential tool that promotes interaction among human beings. Only in monologues, where only one person speaks throughout, is the concept of conversation discarded and this is mainly a feature of drama. Fundamental to dialogues and multilogues (conversation involving more than two persons), however, is Turn-Taking. Turn-Taking in a conversation ensures discipline in who speaks, at what point, and for how long. It is like a sharing device, an

‗economy‘ operating over a scarce resource (Levinson, 1983:297). It is also a crucial mechanism in human-system interaction in which the interlocutors yield and take turns, guided by Turn-Taking cues (Duncan & Fiske, 1977).

In discussing Turn-Taking, therefore, a mechanism guided by a set of rules can be identified (Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, 1978). This mechanism includes a local management system which will indicate a Transition Relevance Place (TRP), Turn Construction Units and regulations by signals and Allocation Systems. In all, silence is abhorred, so much so that even when there is silence, it is still interpreted as an action. Although Turn-Taking is regarded as a prerequisite to every organized conversation, every culture has its unique Turn-Taking qualities.

Similar to a typical conversation in any human language, the Yorùbá conversation possesses the unique rules that ensure the free flow of conversation between individuals (Fakoya, 2006). These governing rules must be adhered to strictly to guarantee that a......


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