PERFORMANCE OF A HYBRID SYNCHRONOUS RELUCTANCE MACHINE CAPABLE OF ULTRA – HIGH OUTPUT POWER


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TABLE OF CONTENT

TITTLE PAGE
CERTIFICATION
APPROVAL
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
DEDICATION
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE:
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Definition of problem
1.2       Enhancement of Reluctance Machine
1.3       Parameters that Affect X d / X q Ratio of the Conventional Machine
1.4       Fundamental Concept of the Hybrid Synchronous Reluctance Machine
1.5       Aims of the Thesis
1.6       Objectives of the Thesis
1.7       The Scope and Significance of the Study

CHAPTER  TWO:  LITERATURE  REVIEW
2.1       Synchronous Machine
2.1.1    Simple Salient Pole Type
2.1.2    The      segmental  rotor
2.1.2    The Channel  Segmental Rotor     
2.1.4    Double Barrier Design
2.1.5    Axially  laminated  anisotropic rotor 
2.1.6    Transversally-laminated design
2.1.7    Punched Laminated Synchronous Rotor
2.2       Capacitor Assisted Polyphase Motors
2.3       Coupled Reluctance Machines
2.4       Analysis of the Coupled Machine
2.5       Transferred field Machine
2.6       Description  of the Hybrid  Machine

CHAPTER THREE: VOLTAGE EQUATION OF THE HYBRID MACHINE
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Reference Frame Model
3.3 Mutual Inductance
3.4       Transformation to dqo
3.5       Capacitor  Voltage  Equation
3.6       Hybrid Machine Voltage Equation in dqo Variables
3.7       Steady State Analysis of the Hybrid Machine
3.7.1  Input  Impedance
3.7.2 Axes Reactance of the Hybrid machine
3.7.3    Direct axis reactance
3.7.4 Quadrature axis reactance
3.7.5 Xd/Xq Ratio
3.7.6 Circle diagrams
3.8       Torque
3.9  Power factor

CHAPTER FOUR: ELECTRICAL MACHINE DESIGN
4.1       Introduction
4.2       KVA Rating
4.3       Separation of D2L Product
4.4       Choice of Specific Magnetic Loading
4.5       Choice of Specific Electric Loading
4.6       Short   Circuit Ratio
4.7       Length of Air Gap (g)
4.7.1    Calculation of Length of air Gap
4.7.2    Effective air gap (ge)
4.8       Magnetization of Magnetic Circuits
4.9       Core Losses
4.10     Leakage Reactance
4.10.1  Slot Reactance
4.10.2  Overhang Leakage Reactance
4.10.3  Zigzag Leakage Reactance
4.10.4  Differential Leakage Reactance
4.11     Turn per phase
4.12     Mean Length of Turn
4.13     Resistance of Stator Winding
4.14     Flux Density in Stator Tooth
4.15     Iron Losses in  Stator  Teeth
4.16     Losses  in Stator  Core    
4.17     No Load Current           
4.18     Magnetizing    Current                       
4.19     Iron Loss Component of Current

CHAPTER FIVE: THE DESIGN OF A HYBRID SYNCHRONOUS
RECLUTANCE MACHINE CAPABLE OF ULTRA–HIGH OUTPUT VOLTAGE
5.1       Introduction
5.2       The design of round rotor section of the hybrid machine
5.3       Stator  Windings
5.4       Calculation of Performance                           
5.5       Slot Leakage
5.6       Over Hang Reactance
5.7       Zigzag Reactance                                           
5.8       The Design of Salient Pole of the Hybrid Machine                                       
5.9       Design Summary of the Hybrid Machine

CHAPTER SIX:  THE  EXPERIMENTAL HYBRID MACHINE
6.1       Constructional Features
6.2       Experimental Set-up
6.3       Power Factor
6.4       Torque
6.5       Main and auxiliary winding currents
6.6       Output power and efficiency
6.7       Comparison of the Conventional Reluctance Machine with the Synchronous
Hybrid Machine
6.7.1    Constructional features
6.7.2    Technique  of  Enhancing  Xd/Xq  Ratio
6.7.3    Output   Power
6.7.4    Power Factor Improvement Technique
6.8       Possible Application of the Hybrid Machine for Bulk-Power Generation

CHAPTER SEVEN: DISUSSION OF RESULTS
7.1       Contribution  to  Knowledge
7.2       Area of Further Study
7.3       Conclusion
References





ABSTRACT


The performance of a hybrid synchronous reluctance machine capable of ultra-high Xd/Xq ratio and output power has been studied. A d-q model (voltage and flux linkage) of the hybrid synchronous reluctance machine has been idealized and developed. Also, the impedance and current loci from the steady state analysis of the synchronous reluctance machine was obtained. The effect of capacitor loading in the auxiliary windings was investigated. The power factor and torque developed in the hybrid synchronous reluctance machine was compared with conventional synchronous reluctance machine. This hybridized synchronous reluctance machine improved the major constraints of conventional synchronous reluctance machine: - low output power and poor power factor due to low ratio of direct to quadrature axis reactance (Xd/Xq). To achieve this, two elemental synchronous reluctance machines were conceived. Both were integrally wound with two identical windings in the stator. The rotor of one of the synchronous reluctance machine component is round while the other has salient pole. Both machine halves were mechanically coupled together. One set of the windings of both machines were connected in series and fed from the ac mains while the other set was also connected in series (but transposed between the two sections of the machine) and then connected to a balanced three-phase variable capacitance load. The Voltage and flux linkage equations were written in abc reference frame for the hybrid machine and then transformed to dqo variable. The steady state and dynamic equivalent circuits of the hybrid machine were developed using classical means. The impedance and current loci for the developed model were generated using Matlab m-files for various values of load angles and capacitance as parameters. The power factor and torque developed in the hybrid machine were compared with those of the conventional synchronous reluctance machine. It is shown that the capacitance loading of the auxiliary windings makes the overall Xd/Xq ratio of the hybrid machine to be a variable that can theoretically attain values between zero and infinity. This translates to ultra-high power output and unity power factor. Also, it is shown that the hybrid synchronous reluctance machine has a power factor control, a feat which is not feasible in conventional synchronous reluctance machines.





CHAPTER ONE


1.0            INTRODUCTION

A synchronous machine is an alternating current rotating machine whose speed under steady state condition is proportional to the frequency of the current in its armature. The magnetic field created by the armature currents rotates at the same speed as that created by the field current on the rotor, which is rotating at the synchronous speed, and a steady torque results. Almost all the electric power used throughout the world is generated by synchronous machine driven either by hydro, steam turbine or combustion engine. Just as the induction machine is the workhorse when it comes to converting energy from electrical to mechanical, the synchronous machine is the principal means of converting energy from mechanical to electrical. Thus, the fundamental difference between a synchronous machine and an induction machine is that the rotor currents of the induction machine are induced while those of the synchronous machine are not. The rotor of synchronous machine is equipped with a field winding and one or two damper windings. The rotor windings have different characteristics [1].


Like most rotating machines, a synchronous machine can also operate as both a generator and a motor. In large sizes (several hundred or thousand kilowatts) synchronous motors are used for pumps in generating stations, and in small sizes (fractional horsepower) they are used in electric clocks, timers, turntables, and so forth where constant speed is desired. Most industrial drives run at a variable speed. In industry synchronous motors are used mainly where constant speeds are desired. Therefore in industrial drives, synchronous motors are not widely used as induction or dc motors......

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