EFFECT OF CARTOONS ON PUPILS’ INTEREST AND ACHIEVEMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
CERTIFICATION
APPROVAL PAGE
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF APPENDICES
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Research questions
Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Conceptual framework
Concept of Primary Education
Concept of Conventional Method of Teaching
Concept of Instructional Materials
Concept of Environmental Education
Concept of Cartoons
Concept of School Achievement
Concept of Interest
Theoretical Framework
Bruner’s Theory of Instruction and Learning
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Montessori’s Principles of Learning
Naylor and Keogh Theory of Cartoons
Empirical Studies
Studies on Cartoons in Teaching Igbo (L2)
Studies on Using Cartoons to Teach Reading
Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Design of the Study
Area of the study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Instrument for Data Collection
Basic Science and Technology Interest Scale (BSIS)
Validation of the Instrument (face and content validity)
Trial Testing
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of data collection
Procedure for training the Research Assistants
Experimental Procedure
Control of Extraneous variables
Method of data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF FINDINGS
Discussion of Results
Summary of the study
Conclusions
Educational implications
Recommendations
Limitations of the study
Suggestion for further research
References
Appendices




ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of cartoons on pupils’ interest and achievement in environmental education (EE) in Basic Science and Technology. The specific purposes of the study are to determine the mean achievement scores of primary school pupils taught EE by

conventional method and by using cartoons; find out the mean interest scores of pupils taught EE by conventional method and by cartoon method; determine the effect of gender on the mean achievement scores of pupils taught EE by conventional method and by using cartoons. Find out the effect of location on the mean achievement scores of pupils taught EE by conventional method and by using cartoons; determine the mean interest scores of rural and urban pupils taught EE by conventional method and by using cartoons; determine the mean interest scores of male and female pupils taught EE by conventional method and by use of cartoons; The design of the study was quasi-experimental non-randomized pretest-posttest control group. The sample consisted of one hundred and fifty seven (157) primary three (3) pupils in four public primary schools in Enugu South Local Education Authority in Enugu Education Zone. The instruments used for the study were a researcher developed achievement test, Environmental Education Achievement Test (EEAT) and interest scale, Basic Science Interest Scale (BSIS) which were validated by five (5) experts. The reliability method used for determining the reliability was Kudrar Richardson (K-R21) formular. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used for data analysis. Major findings of the study showed that using cartoons as instructional materials greatly enhanced achievement and interest in environmental education. Those pupils exposed to the use of cartoons performed significantly better than those exposed to conventional method of teaching. Gender and location had no significant effect on the mean scores of primary three pupils exposed to cartoons. Urban pupils performed better than rural pupils. Urban and rural pupils taught with cartoons showed more interest than pupils taught with the conventional method. Based on the findings, conclusions were drawn and the educational implications were extensively discussed. Major recommendations from the study were that Federal and State Ministries of Education should make available quality cartoon books to primary schools both in the rural and urban areas, and teachers should be encouraged to adopt and use them, since the use of cartoons has been proven to enhance interest and achievement in environmental education.




CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Basic Science and Technology is one of the core subjects in the primary education curriculmu as enshrined in the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). McGraw-Hills (2005) has it that science is the knowledge about the structure and behaviour of natural and physical world, based on facts that one can prove, for example by experiments. Science and technology can be said to be a system of organising the knowledge about particular subject, especially one concerned with aspects of human behaviour and society.

The term science can be used to refer to a product (body of knowledge), a process (a way of acquiring new knowledge through observation, questioning and experimentation), and an enterprise (an institutioanl pursuit of knowledge of the natural world/environment (Egbuna, 2010). The current development of science and technology has greatly affected the lives of every human being that no one can fane ignorance of their significance.

Basic Science and Technology as defined by Asun, Bajah, Ndu, Oguntonade and Youdeowei (2010) is the foundation knowledge given to primary school pupils to help them learn and understand science and acquire basic scientific training to become creative and capable of innovative thinking. It is an activity-oriented course which follows strick thematic approach whose aim is to make learning science effective through a series of activities and exercises, as well as a modern approach of discovery methods. The overall objectives of Basic Science and Technology curriculum under the Universal Basic Education Programme are to.....

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