For more Electrical Engineering Project click here


Title Page
List Of Figures
List Of Tables
List Of Symbols And Abbreviation

Chapter One: Introduction
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem      
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study

Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.1 Historical Trends
2.2       Definition of Terminology
2.3       Over Voltages
2.3.1 Power Frequency Overvoltages
2.3.2 Overvoltage Caused by an Insulation Fault
2.3.3 Overvoltage by Ferromagnetic Resonance
2.3.4 Switching Overvoltages
2.3.5 Normal Load Switching Overvoltage
2.4       Insulation Coordination Principle
2.4.1 Highest Power Frequency System Voltage(Continuous)
2.4.2 Temporary Power-Frequency Overvoltages
2.4.3 Transient Overvoltage Surges
2.4.4 Withstand Levels of the Equipment
2.5       Line Insulation Coordination
2.6       Station Insulation Coordination
2.7       Strategy of Insulation Co-Ordination
2.7.1 Conventional Method of Insulation Co-Ordination
2.7.2 Statistical Approach to Insulation Coordination
2.8 Hidden Markov Model
2.8.1 Brief History of Markov Process and Markov Chain
2.8.2 Brief History of Algorithms Need to Develop Hidden Markov Models
2.8.3 The Expectation-Maximization (E-m) Algorithm
2.8.4 The Baum-Welch Algorithm
2.8.5 The Viterbi Algorithm
2.9 Mathematical Basics of Hidden Markov Models
2.9.1 Definition of Hidden Markov Models
2.10 Summary of Related Literatures

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.0       Model Design
3.1       The Model Design Strategy
3.2       Scenario Description
3.2.1 Surge Event Scenario A
3.2.2 Surge Event Scenario B
3.2.3 Surge Event Scenario C
3.3       The Overvoltage Transient Assessment Based on the Hmm
3.4       The Overvoltage Training Disturbance Classification
3.4.1 The Processing Block
3.5       Computing for the Insulation Coordination
3.6       Modeling the Power System
3.6.1 Transmission Line Conductors Model
3.6.2 Transmission Line Towers Model
3.6.3 Surge Arresters Model
3.6.4 Transformer Model
3.6.5 Lightning Surge Model
3.7       Assumption for Lightning Surge

Chapter Four: Simulation and Result Evaluation
4.0       Simulation and Result Evaluation
4.1       Simulation of the Three Lightning Overvoltage Transient Scenarios
4.1.1 Surge Event Scenario A
4.1.2 Surge Event Scenario B
4.1.3 Surge Event Scenario C
4.2       Waveform at the Strike Point

Chapter Five: Recommendation and Conclusion
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendation
5.4       Suggestion for Further Studies


Generally, for existing Insulation co-ordination studies the power system has been modeled either by deterministic mathematical techniques or by statistical methods. The shortcoming of the existing conventional mathematical technique of Insulation co-ordination analysis is that it assumes that the power system dynamics is linear. This makes analysis of over voltage response of the system under transients less optimal for determining over voltage withstand of system elements. Thus, this work seeks to model a lightning induced over voltage transient in a High voltage power system substation(132/33KV) used as a case study) using Hidden Markov Model, to determine the maximum likelihood lightning surge signal. The station data and configuration was modeled/simulated (in a MATLAB environment), which implements the algorithms used in the work. The Hidden Markov algorithm(which makes use of observable parameters to study what is happening at the hidden states), was used to formulate the problem, while the Baum-welch and Viterbi algorithm were used to find/identify the maximum likelihood lightning overvoltage waveform. These hidden states are represented with different scenarios introduced in the work and the waveform identified, is used to determine the Basic Insulation level(BIL), which is used to determine other parameters accurately, which in turn helps to ensure an optimal/novel Insulation coordination procedure for power system equipment in the station.

The results showed that the minimum required margin(15%) exceeded by a little value(i.e. about 1.08) and the evaluation carried out to raise the protection margin to 18% meant the relocation of the arrester to within 5.56m of the transformer.



1.0 Background of the Study

The demand for the generation and transmission of large amounts of electric power today, necessitates its transmission at extra-high voltages. In modern times, high voltages are used for a wide variety of applications covering the power systems, Industry and research Laboratories. Such applications have become essential to sustain modern civilization[1].

The diverse conditions under which a high voltage apparatus is used necessitate careful design of its insulation and the electrostatic field profiles[2]. This entails the analysis of the electrical power system to determine the probability of post insulation flashovers. For instance, analysis must be carried out to determine that the insulation contained within power system components like transformers has the acceptable margin of protection. Since the internal insulation is not self-restoring, a failure is completely unacceptable. An insulation co-ordination study of a substation will present all the probabilities and margins for all transients entering the station.

Over voltages are phenomena which occur in power system networks either externally or internally. The selection of certain level of over voltages which are based on equipment strength for operation is known as Insulation co-ordination[3]. It is essential for electrical power engineers to reduce the number of outages and preserve the continuity of service and electric supply. In another perspective, Insulation co-ordination is a discipline aiming at achieving the best possible techno-economic compromise for protection of persons and equipment against over voltages, whether caused by the network or lightning, occurring on....

For more Electrical Engineering Project click here

This is a Postgraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679
After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed.
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions

Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance

All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

Article: How to Write a Research Proposal

Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand ...

Popular Posts