TRACE ELEMENTS CONTENT OF NEEM LEAVES (AZADIRACHTA INDICA)

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ABSTRACT
The global scenario is now supporting the development of modern drugs from less toxic plant products with proven medicinal properties. Each part of the neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) reportedly has various medicinal properties and has been in use in many continents for centuries. In this project work, water extract from Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A Juss) with the modern atomic absorption spectrophotometer was presented. The mineral and chemical properties in the water extract of Neem leaf were studied. Results showed that the neem leaf contains some essential minerals needed by the biochemical system. It is obvious that the water extract of Azadirachta indica is significantly high in sodium ion (Na+) and potassium ion (K+) concentrations which are responsible in the conduction of impulses along the axons of the central nervous system. Iron is another element determined. This element is significantly low in the water extract of the sample used (neem leaf). 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Aim of project
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review
2.1 History of Neem tree
2.2 Scientific classification
2.3 Description of the Neem tree
2.4 Neem oil
2.5 Neem gum
2.6 Neem honey
2.7 Chemical compounds in Neem
2.8 Medicinal properties of Neem
2.9 Modern researches on the effect of Neem
2.9.1 Neem’s effect against microorganisms
2.9.2 Neem’s effect against ailments
2.9.3 Toxicity of Neem
2.9.4 Neem as a vegetable
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and methods
3.1 Raw material used
3.2 Equipment used
3.3 Sample preparation and extraction
3.4 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer determination
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Results
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion and conclusion
REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION
Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the very few trees known in the Indian subcontinent (Puri, 1999). This tree belonged to Meliceae family, and grows rapidly in the tropic and semi-tropic climate. It is also observed that this tree could survive in very dry and arid conditions. (Puri, 1999). The Neem Tree is an incredible plant that has been declared the Tree of the 21st century by the United Nations (Puri, 1999). In India, it is variously known as ‘Divine Tree’, ‘Life giving tree’, ‘Nature’s Drugstore’, ‘Village Pharmacy’ and ‘Panacea for all diseases’. It is one of the major components in Ayurvedic medicine, which has been practiced in India since many centuries.
Extracts from the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A Juss) also called ‘Dogonyaro’ in Nigeria are most consistently recommended in ancient medical texts for gastrointestinal upsets, diarrhoea and intestinal infections, skin ulcers and malaria (Schmutterer, 1995).  All parts of Neem plant such as leaves, bark, flower, fruit, seed and root have advantages in medical treatment and industrial products. Its leaves can be used as drug for diabetes, eczema and....


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