THE USE OF BITTER LEAF (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) EXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF-LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER

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ABSTRACT
Locally brewed beer (sorghum beer) is an indigenous alcohol average. It is produced mainly from sorghum grain (Sorghum vulgare ) and the process of brewing involves malting, mashing, souring, fermentation and packaging. Locally brewed beer without hops has a short shelf-life. The aqueous extract of a tropical plant, bitter-leaf was used as the hop .Two type of drink were produced, one with hops and another without hops. Chemical analyses were carried out on both drinks, which gave a significant (p≤0.05) difference. Sorghum beer with hops has a total acidity of 0.562±0.03, fixed acidity of 0.203±0.001, Volatile acidity 0.360±0.02, PH 3.93, specific gravity 1.042±0.003, total dissolved solids 1.12×105ppm, total suspended solids 1.65×105ppm, ethanol content of 3.43±0.03 respectively. While sorghum beer without hops has a total acidity of 0.652 ±0.002, fixed acidity of  0.176±0.002, volatile acidity of 0.476±0.03, PH of 3.50 specific gravity of 1.021±0.003,  total dissolved solid of 1.15×105ppm, total suspended solids of 1.5×105ppm and an ethanol content  of 3.65±0.02. The microbial count for sorghum beer with hop had no growth of E.coli, streptococcus and staphylococcus but aspergillus was present from the 4th day and heaviest on the 8th day. While the drink without hop had growth of staphylococcus and aspergillus which was seen from the 2nd day and heaviest on the 4th day but E.coli and streptococcus was absent. From the results, the drink with hops could keep for a longer period of time than the other drink without hops. Thus, the aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina could extend the shelf-life of locally brewed sorghum beer.

                                                TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE
CERTIFICATION
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CEREALS
2.1.1 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CEREALS
2.2 SORGHUM
2.2.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SORGHUM
2.2.2 SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION OF SORGHUM
2.2.3 GRAIN COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE
2.2.4 CULTIVATION AND USES
2.3 MILLET
2.3.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF MILLET
2.3.2 BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION OF MILLET
2.3.3 PEST AND DISEASES OF MILLET
2.3.4 USES OF MILLET
2.4 BREWING
2.4.1 HISTORY OF BREWING
2.4.2 BREWING PROCESSES
2.4.2.1 EUROPEAN BREWING PROCESS
2.4.2.2 INDIGENOUS AFRICAN BREWING PROCESS
2.5 RAW MATERIALS FOR BREWING
2.5.1 STARCH SOURCE
2.5.2 ADJUNCTS
2.5.3 WATER
2.5.4 HOPS
2.5.4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOPS
2.5.4.2 TROPICAL HOP SUBTITUTES FOR BEER BREWING
2.5.5 YEAST
2.5.5.1 BAKER’S YEAST
2.5.5.2 BREWER’S YEAST
2.6 BIOCHEMISTRY OF BREWING PROCESSES
2.6.1 MALTING AND KILNING
2.6.2 MILLING
2.6.3 MASHING
2.6.4 SOURING
2.6.5 WORT BOILING
2.6.6 FERMENTATION
2.6.6.1 ALCOHOL FERMENTATION
2.6.6.2 TOP FERMENTATION
2.6.6.3 BOTTOM FERMENTATION
2.6.7 PACKAGING
2.7 SPOILAGE
2.7.1 MICROORGANISM THAT DETERIORATE BEER
2.8 TYPES OF BEER
2.8.1 EUROPEAN BEERS
2.8.2 INDIGENOUS AFRICAN BEERS
2.9 EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON MAN
2.9.1 ALCOHOL AND HEALTH
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 MATERIALS
3.1.1 CHEMICALS AND REAGENTS
3.1.2 GLASSWARES AND EQUIPMENT
3.1.3 PREPARATION OF SAMPLES
3.2 METHODS
3.2.1 METHOD OF PREPARATION OF SORGHUM BEER
3.2.2 ACTIVATION OF YEAST
3.2.3 PREPARATION OF BITTERLEAF EXTRACT
3.2.4 PREPARATION OF REAGENT
3.2.4.11% PHENOLPHTHALEIN
3.2.4.2 0.1M NaOH SOLUTION
3.3 METHOD OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS
3.3.1 TOTAL ACIDITY
3.3.2 FIXED ACIDITY
3.3.3 VOLATILE ACIDITY
3.3.4 PH DETERMINATION
3.3.5 SPECIFIC GRAVITY
3.3.6 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLID
3.3.7 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS
3.3.8 ETHANOL CONTENT
3.3.9 MICROBIAL COUNT
3.3.9.1 PROCEDURES FOR THE PREPARATION OF MEDIA
3.3.9.2 PROCEDURE FOR CULTURING PLATES
3.3.9.3 PROCEDURE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANISMS

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS
4.1 RESULTS FOR TOTAL ACIDITY, FXED ACIDITY, VOLATILE ACIDIT YAND PH OF SORGHUM BEER
4.2THE GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF TOTAL ACIDITY, FIXED ACIDITY, VOLATILE-ACIDITY AND PH RESULT
4.3 RESULTS FOR ETHANOL CONTENT, SPECIFIC GRAVITY, TDS AND TSS    FOR SORGHUM BEER
4.4 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT, SPECIFIC           GRAVITY, TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) AND TOTAL          SUSPENDED SOLID (TDS) RESULTS
4.5 AVERAGE MEAN PARAMETERS GENERATED FROM HOPPED AND           UNHOPPED SORGHUM BEER
4.6 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE AVERAGE PARAMETERS             GENERATED FROM SORGHUM BEER WITH AND WITHOUT          HOPS
4.7 MICROBIAL COUNT FOR BENCH STORED SORGHUM BEER WITH AND WITHOUT HOP
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION
5.1 CONCLUSION
5.2 RECOMMENDATION
REFERENCES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX C

CHAPTER ONE
1.0   INTRODUCTION
The word beer derives from the Latin word bibere meaning to drink (Okafor, 2007). Beer is the world’s oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Grossman (1995) defined beer as a general name given to beverages resulting from the germination of a malt or cereal grain. The process of brewing beer is called brewing. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches mainly derived from cereal grains most commonly malted barley, although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are widely used (Gutcho, 1976). In Nigeria today, barley has been replaced by some locally grown cereals such as sorghum or guinea corn, millet....

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