THE KINETIC STUDY ON HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE (SAW-DUST)

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ABSTRACT


This research project studied on the kinetics of hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. The steps employed to achieve this project involved extraction of cellulose from sawdust and subsequently, hydrolysis of starch to simple sugar. This was followed by glucose analysis. Different experiments were conducted during acid hydrolysis to study the various acids on the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. The saw-dust was extracted from the wood by grinding using saw. The process used in the hydrolysis was acid hydrolysis in which two major inorganic acids (Hydrochloric and Sulfuric) were used at constant temperature of 80oC. During this experiment, it was observed that Hydrochloric acid hydrolyzed most, followed by Sulphuric acid. Finally, sugar analysis was carried out to determine the acid with the highest yield of glucose and the best acid for the hydrolysis. It was noticed that the yield of glucose was relatively high from HCl at 1.280% concentration, followed by H2SO4 at 0.940%. It was also seen from the graph that the absorbance yield increases as the glucose concentrations increases in terms of HCl. Therefore, the best acid for acid for acid hydrolysis is HCl.

CHAPTER ONE


1.1 INTRODUCTION


Cellulose is a naturally occurring polymeric material containing thousands of glucose-like rings each of which contain three alcoholic OH groups. Its general formula is represented as (C6H10O5 )n. The OH-groups present in cellulose can be esterified or etherified, the most important cellulose derivatives are the esters. Cellulose is the name given to a long chain of atoms consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen arranged in a particular manner. Cellulose is found in nature in almost all forms of plant life, and especially in cotton and wood. A cellulose molecule is made up of large number of glucose units linked together by oxygen atom. Each glucose unit contains three(3) Hydroxyl groups, the hydroxyl groups present at carbon-6 is primary, while two other hydroxyl are secondary. Cellulose is the most abundant organic chemical on Earth more than 50% of the carbon in plants occurs in the cellulose of stems and leaves. Wood is largely cellulose, and cotton is more than 90% cellulose. It is a major constituent of plant cell walls that provides strength and rigidity and presents the swelling of the cell and rupture of the plasma membrane that might result when osmotic conditions favor water entry into the cell. Cellulose is a fibrous, tough, water-insoluble substances, it can be seen in cell walls of plants, particularly in stalks, stems, trunks and all woody portions of the plant....

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