THE EFFECTS OF SENNA TORA LEAVES EXTRACT ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS OF THE DIABETIC ALBINO RATS (A FOCUS ON DIABETES MELLITUS)

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Table of content

CHAPTER ONE
1.0    INTRODUCTION
1.1    Aims and objective of the research

CHAPTER TWO
2.0    Literature Review
2.1    Scientic classification of Senna Tora
2.2    Description of senna tora
2.3    Some common names of senna tora
2.4    Geographical distribution of senna tora
2.5    Growth requirements of senna tora
2.6    Propagation of senna tora
2.7    Some studies on the phytochemical uses of senna tora
2.8    Some chemical properties of senna tora
2.9    Uses and benefits of cassia tora
2.10  Definition of diabetes
2.11  Diabetes insipidus
2.12  Diabetes mellitus
2.13  History of diabetes mellitus
2.14  Types of diabetes mellitus
2.15  Type 1 diabetes mellitus
2.16  Types 2 diabetes mellitus
2.17  Gestational diabetes
2.18  Hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia
2.19  Causes of Diabetes
2.20  Symptoms of diabetes mellitus
2.21  Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus
2.22  Diagnosis, treatment and management of diabetes mellitus
2.23  Lifestyle modifications
2.24  Effect and complications of diabetes mellitus
2.25  Alloxan
2.26  History of alloxan
2.27  Discovery of alloxan
2.28  Synthesis of alloxan
2.29  Structure of alloxan
2.30  Impact upon beta cells
2.31  Mechanism of alloxan action
2.32  Pancreas
2.33  The structures of pancreas
2.34  Insulin
2.35  History of insulin
2.36  The structure of insulin
2.37  Insulin biosynthesis
2.38  Effects of insulin deficiency
2.39  Fat metabolism
2.40  Degradation of fatty acids in the liver
2.41  Fat synthesis in the liver
2.42  Glycolysis
2.43  Carbohydrate metabolism
2.44  Metabolic homeostasis
2.45  Major hormones of metabolic homeostasis
2.46  Changes in hormone levels after a meal
2.47  Changes in hormones level during diabetes mellitus

CHAPTER THREE
3.0    Materials and Methods
3.1    Plant materials
3.2    Animals
3.3    Chemical and reagents
3.4    Equipments and apparatus
3.5    Preparation of plant material
3.6    Weighing and grouping of rats
3.7    Induction of diabetes
3.8    Injection of senna tora
3.9    Collection of blood samples
3.10  Blood glucose estimation

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0    RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0    DISCUSSION
5.1    Conclusion
5.2    Recommendation
REFERENCES

 
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which blood vessels of glucose (sugar) are high because the body does not produce or properly use insulin. There are two major forms of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes   develops when the pancreas does not produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body cell resist insulin’s effect (Microsoft Encarta, 2009). This condition leads to elevated levels of blood glucose. The normal range of blood glucose level for blood glucose level is between 70-110mg/dl. Insulin is a hormone that helps to maintain normal blood glucose level by making the body’s cell absorbs glucose (sugar) so that it can be as a source of energy. In people with diabetes glucose levels build up in the blood and urine causing excessive urination, thirst, hunger and problems with fats and protein metabolism because the body cannot convert glucose into energy, it begins to  break down stored fats for fuel. This produces increasing amounts of acidic compounds in the blood called ketone bodies which interfere with cellular respiration energy producing process in cells. Alloxan induces diabetes mellitus in rats. Alloxan, a beta cytotoxin, induces diabetes in a wide variety of animal species through damage of insulin secreting cell. In these animals, with characteristic similar to type 1 diabetes in humans. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are common....


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