HEPATOPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF SENA TORA LEAVE EXTRACT ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Table of content

CHAPTER ONE
1.0    INTRODUCTION
1.1    Aims of the research

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0    Senna Tora
2.1.1 Taxonomy of Senna Tora (Nature Serve, 2007)
2.1.2 Geographical distribution of Senna Tora
2.1.3 Growth requirements of Senna Tora
2.1.4 Propagation of Senna Tora
2.1.5 Importance/uses of Senna Tora
2.2    Liver
2.2.1 Anatomy of the liver
2.2.2 Structure of the liver
2.2.3 Functions of the liver
2.2.4 Hepatic metabolism
2.2.5 Cholesterol Synthesis
2.2.6 Pathway for the synthesis of cholesterol
2.2.7 Liver damage/intoxication
2.2.8 Causes of liver damage
2.2.9 Liver diseases
2.2.10 Toxicity
2.2.11Tissue Lesion
2.2.12 Hepatotoxicity
2.3    Hepatotoxicity of Carbon tetrachloride
2.3.1 Biotransformation of carbon tetrachloride
2.3.2 Action of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4)
2.3.4 Properties ofCCL4
2.3.5 Hazardous effects of CCL4
2.3.6 Uses of carbon tetrachloride
2.3.7 Biotransformation and covalent binding
2.4    Liver enzymes and functions
2.5    Oxidative stress and radical reactions
2.6    Lipid peroxidation and free radicals
2.7    Reversing liver damage
2.8    Regulations of cholesterol levels

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.0    Materials
3.1    Plant materials
3.2    Animals
3.3    Equipments
3.4    Chemicals and reagents
3.5    Experimental design
3.6    Methods
3.6.1 Preparation of plant materials
3.6.2 Extraction of plant material
3.7    Assay of cholesterol principle
3.8    Reagent composition
3.9    Assay procedure

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS
4.0    Effect of carbon tetrachloride and senna tora extract on cholesterol level

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
5.1    Suggestion for further research
REFERENCES
APPENDIX
  
CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
       Many of the developing countries including African countries like Nigeria practice traditional medicine as its main source of health care. This traditional medicine is normally gotten from plant origin [Rehan Ahmad et al, 2008, Stephen bent, 2008].Today nearly 88 percent of the global populations switch to plant derived medicines as their first line of defence for maintaining health and combating diseases [Kintzois et al,2006]. Presently there are about 60 types of medicinal plants that have been recognised in primary health care and are classified according to their pharmacological actions such as peptic ulcers, anti flatulence, laxative, anti diarrhoea and anti hepatic[Viomolos et al,2003]. However in future the discovery of novel therapeutic agents will be only dependent on plant origin [Perulmalsamy et al, 1999].
        Senna tora is an example of traditional medicine with pharmacological actions as anticholesterolemic, antispasmodic, carninitative, emolliants, ophthalmic and purgative [Polunin and Stanton,1984,Yeung,1985,Manandhar, 2002]. It can be cardiotonic, antiperiodic, anthelminitic and expectorant  and can also be used in treating  cogh,leprosy ,ring worm ,colic,flatulence, constipation and other disorders[Nature serve,2007]. Senna tora formally regarded as cassia tora is capable of suppressing  the production of prostaglandins and other inflammatory agonists such as cytokines, histamine, kinin and free radical.manila,1998 buttressed his observations confirming its use in the treatment of constipation, edema and liver protection in Korea.
        Liver, the largest internal organ of the human body performs more than five hundred functions, all of which are very vital to life. The liver can regenerate or grow back cells that have been destroyed by short term injury or disease, but if the liver is damaged repeatedly over a long period of time, it may undergo irreversible changes which permanently interferes with its function.
     Carbon tetrachloride is a toxic substance that interrupts the liver and its functions. This is to say that it damages the liver when ingested.CCL4 is stable in the presence of air and light, it is also inflammable. Despite its toxic effect on the liver, it is useful as grain fumigant ,pesticide etc. Equilibrium of the body fluids and secretions are altered as a result of carbon tetrachloride. For instance lipid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism...

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