EXTRACTION AND STUDY OF EFFECT OF HEAT ON CAFFEINE EXTRACTED FROM KOLA NUT

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ABSTRACT
Caffeine is an odorless, slightly bitter organic compound found mostly in beverages such as coffee or tea and in chocolate.  It is the most widely used “mind-altering drug” in the world, though it is considered safe and is mostly unregulated.  Caffeine acts as a mild stimulant on the nervous system, aiding in alertness.  Caffeine is also included in many weight loss supplements due to its reputation of acting as an appetite suppressant and in stimulating thermogenesis.  A number of over the counter pain relievers, headache remedies and antihistamines contain caffeine.

Product Features
Caffeine is a compound that is produced naturally in the many plants and nuts.  Although it is widely available without a prescription, caffeine is defined as a drug because it stimulates the central nervous system, causing increased alertness and giving most people a temporary energy and mood boost.  Caffeine is known to stimulate thermogenesis, one of the ways the body generates heat and energy from digested food.  Caffeine may also act as an appetite suppressant and as a diuretic.
There are many sources of caffeine available on the market today.  In addition to being found in coffee, tea, energy waters, cocoa and carbonated beverages, caffeine is also found in a variety of chocolates.  It is also present in a number of weight loss supplements in the form of kola nut seeds, bissey nut, guarana, citrus aurantlum extract and yerba mate.  It is important to know what form of caffeine is in any diet product you purchase as some do come with safety warnings. It is also important to avoid mixing too many forms of caffeine in one formula as this can lead to restlessness, sleeplessness and heart irregularities.



TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of content

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     Introduction
1.1     Statement of problem
1.2     Chemical composition of Kolanuts
1.3     Uses of kolanuts
1.4     Caffeine
1.5     Sources and occurrence of caffeine
1.6     Sources of caffeine
1.7     Health uses of caffeine
1.8     Tolerance and withdrawal effects of caffeine
1.9     Reason for the present research project
1.0     Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0     Literature review

CHAPTER THREE
3.0     Materials and methods
3.1     Materials
3.2     Production of kola grind
3.3     Caffeine extraction from kola nuts
3.4     Purification of caffeine
3.5     Melting point determination
3.6     Thermal degradation of caffeine


CHAPTER FOUR
4.1     Conclusion
References

 
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION

Kola cola is common name for a genus of about 125 species of evergreen trees (trees that certain foliage throughout the year). It is a native to tropical areas of the world. Kola trees are best known for their seeds or nuts which are rich in caffeine and used in the manufacturing of carbonated soft drinks known as kola beverages.1
Kola trees belong to the cacao family sterculiaceae. The main species grown for their seed production are classified as kola nitida and kola acuminate.2They are classified into these groups on the basis of the amount of cotyledons they have: kola nitida is dicotyledonous while kola acuminate has more than two cotyledons. Thses are two varieties of kola nitida which are rubra and alba. 3,4
Economically, the most important kola species are those cultivated in tropical; countries for their caffeine –rich nuts.1 Harvested by hand, the brown nuts, which resemble chestnuts and have an aroma. Like that of nutmeg are separated from the follicles and sun-dried, after which they are ready for shipment. Kola forms a part of social and religious customs in West Africa. Kola is one of the major....


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