EVALUATION OF THE TRACE – ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF THE LEAF EXTRACT (A FOCUS ON PIPER METHYSTICUM (AWA))

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Table of content

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Herbs
1.2    Objectives of study

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1    History of Piper methysticum (Awa)
2.1.1 Chemistry of Awa
2.1.2 Uses of Piper methysticum
2.1.3 Effect of Awa on the fungal growth
2.1.4 Hepatotoxicity of Piper methysticum
2.1.5 Phytochemicals of Piper methysticum

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1    Plant material
3.2    Extract Preparation
3.3    Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy determination

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT


CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION
5.1    Discussion
5.2    Conclusion
Bibliography
 
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Herbs
An herb is a plant that is valued for flavor, scent, medicinal or other qualities other than its food value (John, 2000). They are used in cooking, as medicines, and for spiritual purposes. Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary and medicinal usage. General usage differs between culinary herbs and medicinal herbs (John, 2000).  Herbs are “generally recognized as safe” by the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), at least at concentrations commonly found in foods (Kaefer et al, 2008). Medicinal plants continue to provide valuable therapeutic agents, both in modern medicine and in traditional system (Reaven, 1983). The leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner bark (cambium), berries and sometimes the pericarp or other portions of the plant might be considered in medicinal or spiritual use (John, 2000). In the medicinal uses, herbs (plants) contain phytochemicals that have effects on the body (John, 2000).
Until the 20th century, (Sanusi et al, 2008) most medicinal remedies all over the world were obtained from plants. For example, purple forglove was found to be helpful in dropsy, the opium poppy for pain, cough, and diarrhea, and the cinchona bark for fever. With the emergence of chemical and pharmacological methods in the 20th century, it became possible to identify the active ingredients in the plants and study them. Furthermore, once the chemistry was understood, it was possible to synthesize related molecules with more desirable properties. According to (Sodimu et al, 2008), today, the two most effective and widely accepted drugs for the treatment of malaria today emerged through herbal traditional medicine viz: Quinine from the bark of the Peruvian cinchona tree and artemisinin from the Chinese antipyretic Artemisia annua L. Hence, throughout history, the medicinal benefits of herbs are quoted (John, 2000). There may be some effects....


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