EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF MONODORA MYRISTICA (AFRICAN NUTMEG)

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ABSTRACT
This work evaluates the antioxidant potential of Monodora myristica (African nutmeg). Monodora myristica extract was obtained by solvent extraction using n-hexane and used as treatment on freshly prepared crude palm kernel oil and palm oil. Equal volume of oil samples were subjected to different concentration of extract treatment (0.2ml,0.4ml, 0.6ml, 0.8ml, 1.0ml using syringe. These oil samples were equally divided into two groups SS and SR. Group SS was stored under the sun and group SR  was stored in the room for three weeks. These treated oil samples were analyzed on weekly basis at two different parameters: Acid value (AV) of free fatty acid and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, using standard methods. The main effect of extract was determined using ANOVA. For the two varieties of oil, the acid value of free fatty acid increased significantly (P<0 .05="" also="" and="" as="" av.="" av="" both="" but="" concentration="" decreased="" extends="" extract="" for="" group="" groups="" hence="" higher="" i="" increase.="" no="" of="" oil="" period="" same="" samples="" showed="" significant="" significantly="" sr.="" sr="" ss="" style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;" tba="" the="" those="" treated="" trend="" value="" while="" with="" without="">monodora myristica
extract yielded reducing effect in the oxidative level of the oil varieties.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of content
List of tables
List of figure
Abbreviation

CHAPTER ONE
1.0          Introduction
1.1          Significance of study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0          Literature Review
2.1          African nutmeg (Monodora myristica)
2.1.1      Scientific classification
2.1.2      Habitat/ ecology of Mondora myristica
2.1.3      Characteristics/morphology of monodora myristica
2.2          Oil Palm
2.2.1      Scientific classification
2.2.2      Origin and description of palm oil
2.2.3      The Chemical composition of palm oil
2.2.4      Physical characteristics of palm oil products
2.3          Palm kernel oil
2.3.1      The chemical composition of palm kernel oil
2.4          Modern uses of palm oil and palm kernel oil
2.5          Lipid oxidation
2.5.1      Lipid oxidation pathway
2.5.2      Mechanism of oxidation
2.6          General antioxidant action
2.6.1      Mechanism of antioxidant action
2.6.2      Antioxidant molecules
2.7          General review of photochemistry of monodra myristica
2.7.1      Alkaloids
2.7.2      Flavonoids
2.7.3      Glycosids
2.7.4      Saponins
2.7.5      Tannins
2.8          Application of vegetable oils
2.8.1      Factors that cause oxidative rancidity in vegetable oil
2.9          Nutritional signification

CHAPTER THREE
3.0          Materials and methods
3.1          Equipment/apparatus
3.2          Procurement of raw materials
3.3          Study design
3.4          Sample preparation
3.5          Chemical analysis
3.5.1      Determination of acid value (Av)
3.5.2      Determination of thiobarbituric acid number
3.6          Statistical analysis
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0          Result and Discussion
4.1          Changes in Acid value of Palm Kernel and palm oil
4.2          Changes thiobarbituric acid value of palm kernel and palm oil
4.3          Effect of monodora myristica extract on the
 chemical indices of oil on storage

CHAPTER FIVE
 5.0         Summary and conclusion
5.1          limitations
5.3          Future recommendation

References
Appendix I
Appendix II
Appenedix III





CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
            Lipid oxidation is one of the major reasons that food deteriorate and is caused by the reaction of fat and oil with molecular oxygen, leading to off-flavours that are generally called rancidity(Basturk et al., 2007). Exposure to light, pro-oxidants and elevated temperature will accelerate the reaction (Kubow, 2009). Lipid oxidation and resultant flavour impairment has seriously limited the storage potential of most fat containing foods (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985).
            Rancidity covers a wide range of biological activities where the effect is to “make things worse” and thus adversely affect man’s economy. Free radicals and microorganisms are known to cause chemical characteristics that lead to oxidation and deterioration in quality of vegetable oils derived from the seeds or fruits pulps of plants (Basturk et al, 2007). The keeping quality of the oils is basically dependent on their chemical compositions, for instance, the percentages of the degree of unsaturation. Rancidity is associated with off-flavour and odour of the oil. There are two causes of rancidity. One occurs when oil reacts with oxygen and is called oxidative rancidity. The other cause of rancidity is by the combination of enzymes and moisture. Enzymes such as lipase liberate fatty acids from the triglyceride....

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