COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DISINFECTANT EFFICIENCY OF ETHANOL, BLEACH AND PHENOLICS AGAINST Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Certification           
Dedication
Acknowledgements           
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Plates
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Aims and Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Literature Review
2.1       History of Disinfectants
2.2       About Disinfectants
2.3       Sources of Contamination of Surfaces
2.4       Types of Disinfectants
2.5       Properties of A Disinfectant
2.6       General Features of Disinfectant
2.7       General Features of the Test Organisms
2.9       Mechanism of Actions of Disinfectants against Bacteria
2.10    Resistant Action of Bacteria
2.11    Advantages and Disadvantages of Disinfectants
2.12    General Guidelines in the Use of Disinfectants

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Material and Method
3.1       Isolation of Bacteria
3.2       Identification of Isolates
3.3       Preparation of Disinfectants
3.4       Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (Using Kirby Bauer
Diffusion Assay Well Method)

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       Discussion
5.1       Recommendations
5.2       Conclusion
References
Appendix 1
Appendix II
Appendix III




ABSTRACT
Ethanol, Bleach and Phenolics are three kinds of disinfectants which have been widely used in common laboratories.  In this study, a compared experiment on these three disinfectants efficiency was conducted against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar hole diffusion method.  Different concentrations of bleach (1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%) were used on both organisms.  Also (50%, 60%, 70%, 85% and 95%) of ethanol as well as (5%, 10%, 20%, 25%, and 30%) Phenolics were used. Diffrences in  concentrations tested was because, the original concentrations of the disinfectants differs. After 24 hours of incubation at 370C, the results showed that all the disinfectants inhibited the growth of the test organism in their concentrated forms.  The diameter of zone of inhibitions were measured around each well by using a ruler in millimeters, using different concentrations, their efficacies varied.  The results showed that 30% Phenolics had the best efficiency against both test organisms and 5% bleach had a better effect on Staphylococcus aureus than Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while ethanol showed least sensitivity. 70% concentration gave the highest effect on Staphylococcus aureus as compared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
           

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
            Microorganisms are minute living things that individually are too small to be seen with the unaided eyes (Tortora et al, 2007).  Though only a minority of microorganisms are pathogenic (disease producing), practical knowledge of microbes is necessary for medicine and related health sciences.  For example hospital workers must be able to protect patients from common microbes that are normally harmless but pose a threat to the sick and injured.  Thousands of people died in devastating epidemics; the cause of which was not understood.  Entire families died because vaccination and antibiotics were not available to fight infection (Johnson and Case, 1995).  This leads to scientific control of microbial growth.  This began only about 100 years ago.  It was Pasteur’s work on microorganism that led scientists to believe that microbes were a possible cause of diseases and need to be eliminated or destroyed.  Some examples off these microbes are; Bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa etc (Tortora et al, 2007).
            In the mid 1800s, the Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmeliveis and English physician Joseph Lister used these thoughts to develop some of the first microbial control practice for medical...


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