ANALYSIS OF THE DETERMINATIONS OF INFLATION IN NIGERIA (1980-2010)

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ABSTRACT

Inflation has become a heading topic of discussion in the Nigeria economy and other countries of the world. The press as its effect penetrates more deeply into the nation’s life. It has become something of a platitude to say that sharp, continuous increase in price is among the serious economic problems of our time. The main purpose of the study is to highlight the determinants of inflation in Nigeria and to check the trend of inflation over time (i.e. 1980 -2010) and the measures to curb it. The methodology involves the use of ordinary least square econometric techniques using PC Give econometric package. These include T-test, to test the explanatory power of the estimates, the F-test to determine the significance of the entire regression plan and the second order tests, which includes test for auto-correlation, normality test, heteroscedasticity test and multicollinearity test. The objective of the study are to determine the possible determinants of inflation rate in the country and to provide economic policies and solutions to the issue of inflation in Nigeria. The data were largely the secondary data which are collected from CBN statistical bulletin. The data are collected for inflation rate and its determinants from 1980-201o. The dependent variables are money supply, government expenditure, real gross domestic product and real exchange rate. The regression result shows that real exchange rate, Government expenditure have a negative impact on inflation while money supply and real GDP have a positive impact on inflation respectively. This implies that an increase in real exchange rate, Government expenditure will reduce inflation while an increase in money supply and real GDP will increase inflation. The researcher recommends that monetary and fiscal policies should be used to control and direct economic activities of a country to avoid inflation.


CHAPTER ONE


1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


The avoidance of rapid increase in general price level which is inflation is one of the micro economic objectives of any economy. When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. Consequently, inflation also refers to erosion in the purchasing power of money, a loss of real value in the internal medium of exchange and unit of account in the economy. A chief measure of price inflation is the price inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index (normally the consumer price index) over time.

Solow (1979), for instance, sees inflation as going on when one needs more and more money to buy some representatives bundle of goods and services, or sustained fall in the purchasing power of money, a sustained rise in price level(Johnson,1972).A persistence and appreciable rise in the general level of prices(Shapiro,1994)and a continuing rise in prices as measured by an index such as the consumer price index (CPI) (Dernbury and Mc Dongall).

Robert J. Gordon (1986) describes three major types of inflation as the

“triangle model” and these includes demand pull inflation, cost-push inflation and built-in inflation....


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