A PROJECT RESEARCH INTO SERUM CALCIUM LEVEL IN GERIATRIC MEN, COMPERATIVE STUDIES

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
List of table and Figures
Table of content
Abstract
CHAPTER ONE
1.0.0: Introduction
1.1.0: The amount of calcium in the body
CHAPTER TWO
2.0.0: Literature review
2.1.0: Reasons for serum calcium test
2.2.0: Techniques for serum calcium test
2.3.0: Factors that determines the serum calcium test
2.4.0: Values of serum calcium fractions
2.5.0: Effects of abnormalities in serum calcium levels
2.6.0: Biological functions of inorganic ions
2.7.0: Clinical significance of serum calcium
2.7.1: Causes of hypocalcaemia
2.7.2: Causes of hypercalceamia
2.8.0: Effector organs
2.8.1: Sources
2.8.2: Excretion
2.8.3: The roles of bone
2.8.4: Interaction of calcium with other chemicals
2.8.5: Regulatory organs
CHAPTER THREE
3.0.0: Methodology/ Instruments
3.1.0: Instruments used
3.2.0: Collection of specimens
3.3.0: Methodology
3.3.1: Principle of the test
3.3.2: Procedure used
3.3.3: Calculation of the results
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0.0: Experimental result
4.1.0: Statistical analysis
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0.0:Discussion/ conclusion
5.1.0: Discussion
5.2.0: Conclusions
5.3.0: References
5.4.0: Recommendation

ABSTRACT
Calcium is the most important mineral in the body. The body needs calcium for normal functioning of nerves and muscles including the most important muscles of all which is the heart. Calcium is also important for healthy bones and teeth. The amount of calcium in the blood is carefully controlled by the body’s hormonal systems. The body gets calcium from diary products, some vegetables (such as broccoli), and some fortified foods. Calcium can also be obtained from taken pills containing calcium. Most of the body’s calcium is stored in the bones and only small amount is found in the blood (serum). Calcium is maintained within a fairly narrow range from 8.5 to 10.5mg/dl (4.3 to 5.3meq/l or 2.2 to 2.7mmol/l). The estimation of serum calcium level is fraught with possible errors. Several means of contamination might lead to false elevations of serum calcium concentration. Before the test is carried out, one does not need to fast or limit ones activity before the test. Rather certain medicine/drugs needed to be avoided before the test, because they might affect the test result. The result of the experiment can be calculated, since the differences in serum calcium is significance with the age differences. Those with the age bracket (50 years & above) have lesser serum calcium level than those in the range of 20 to 30 years.    


CHAPTER ONE         
1.1.0:                           INTRODUCTION
               Serum Calcium level in Geriatric men
Calcium is the most common mineral in the body and one of the most important elements. The body needs it to build and fix bones and teeth, help nerves work, make muscles squeeze together, help blood clot, and help the heart to work. Almost all of the calcium in the body is stored in the bone. The rest is found in the....


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