WATER TREATMENT PLANT MODEL


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ABSTRACT
The technical report of this project deals with the design of a water treatment plant model which consists of five tanks.
Water treatment plant model is made up of glass with pipe joining them together to allow movement of water from one tank to another.
6mm plain glass is used for base and 5mm plain glass is used for other component. These glasses are joined together with addition of silicon sealant gum.
Water treatment plant model has five processing tanks stages i.e raw Water tank, Flocculation tank, Sedimentation tank, Filter bed and Clear water tank.
Finally, water treatment plant model is very important for the civil engineering and water engineering section, because it helps to exposed the student better to the practical aspect of water treatment.


TABLE OF CONTENT
·        FRONT PAGE
·        CERTIFICATION
·        DEDICATION
·        ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
·        ABSTRACT
·        TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0               INTRODUCTION
1.1              HUMAN AND WATER
1.2              THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
1.3              INVENTORY OF EARTHS WATER
1.4              SOURCES OF WATER
1.4.1           UNDER GROUND WATER
1.4.2           SURFACE WATER
1.4.3           RAIN         
1.5              USES OF WATER
1.5.1           MANS USES
1.5.1.1        DOMESTIC REQUIREMENT
1.5.1.2        SANITATION REQUIREMENT
1.5.2           AGRICULTURE
1.5.3           INDUSTRIAL USE
1.5.3.1        FOR WASHING
1.5.3.2        FOR COOLING
1.5.3.3        POWER GENERATION
1.5.3.4        FIRE FIGHTING
1.5.3.5        TRANSPORTATION
1.5.3.6        RECREATIONAL

CHAPTER TWO
2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1     QUALITY OF WATER (STANDARDS)


CHAPTER THREE
3.0     METHODOLOGY
3.1     WATER TREATMENT PLANT MODEL
3.2     MATERIALS AND TOOLS
3.3     METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
3.4     TYPES OF TANK
3.5     FUNCTION OF EACH TANK

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1     DEMAND ANALYSIS
4.2     DOMESTIC DEMAND

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1     WATER RESOURCES
5.2     INTAKE WORKS
5.3     TREATMENT WORKS
5.3.1  SLOW SAND FILTRATION
5.3.2  FILTER OPERATION
5.3.3  INSTRUMENTATION CONTROLS
5.3.4  CLEAR WATER TANK
5.3.5  HIGH LIFT PUMP HOUSE/ PUMP
5.4     CHEMICAL DOSING

CHAPTER SIX
6.0     RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
6.1     RECOMMENDATION
6.2     CONCLUSION
REFERENCES


CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
1.1     HUMAN AND WATER                                               
          The environment of man plays a prominent role on mans health than all types of diseases one can possibly think of. Then it is necessary to have standard environmental sanitation. Next to air terms of importance is water. Water is a basic necessity to man existence and environmental sanitation condition.
          One does not necessarily has to be a philosopher to agree with the view that the environment play a major role on mans health bearing in mind that apart from the direct effect the physical environment has on health, the type of diseases found in an area have a direct relationship with the nature of the physical environment thus mans environment has to be properly sanitized.
          It can therefore be said that next to air, water is very important to man existence. According to a great philosopher PRINDER in the century B.C he said “ water is the best of all things” this could perhaps be an overstatement but it is an undisputed fact that man relies on it.
Apart from mans day to day activities and demand for water drinking, cooking and general sanitation purposes, water is also useful in regards and respect to irrigation, power generation (Kanji dam) industrial (Breweries etc) and recreational facilities (water foundations).
          In Africa in general in regards to settlement portable water is not readily available to the people. 80% as estimated have no access to portable water which is especially more dominant in the rural areas due to in adequate planning. Due to this there is a great demand for portable water supply in the rural community.
          Thus therefore brings forth the concept to design mini-water schemes for rural communities. The provision of economical and adequate increased water supply is particularly acute in rural communities. Therefore portable water to the rural population is undoubtedly a major benefit of water development. It immediately reduces the health hazards significantly and further contributes to the major directs and indirect benefits i.e it will have a spoil over effect on the other associated problems, that are associated with health in any community which is fortunately the form of attention of the present day government and the aim of this project.
          Hence the fundamental question that should be asked is not whether there should be water development but rather how do we meet the basic human needs and aspirations of the consumers without simultaneously destroying the resources base?
          The require the conception, planning design construction and operation of facilities to control and utilize water in other to achieve an economical and cost effective system which should be such that would meet the requirement of many other rural areas throughout the country with only slight.
          Modification and upgrading. Although it is basically the function of civil engineers but the service of specialist from other fields are required and water resources problems are also the concern of economists, scientist, geologist and others.
          It should be noted that a project this nature will meet ones immediate needs in this country and making the dream of “ HEALTH FOR ALL BY THE YEAR 2020” a reality and improved of portable water for consumption in adequate quantity.
          A typical water supply scheme consists of obtaining natural sources of water supply and treating to purify the water and also eventually to the premises
          A conventional water works comprises of the following:
       i.            Collection works
     ii.            Purification or treatment works
  iii.            Transmission works
  iv.            Distribution works
The treatment works converts raw and usually contaminated surface water regardless of water quality. Effluents of desired safty, clarify and chemical composition can produced by suitable treatment methods into clean and safe drinking water which would meet the world health organization standard. For drinking water.
          The treatment plant comprises of treatment with chemicals mixing coagulation, fluctuation, settlement, filtration and sterilization. Because the surface water contains suspended and dissolved impurities and is generally contaminated. It should be properly treated before it can be supplied to the community.

1.2     HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
          The cycle movement of water from the sea to the atmosphere is hence by precipitation to the earth and is collected in streams and runs back to the sea. The cycle may short circuit at several stances like for example, the precipitation may fall directly or river courses.
Water from the sea evaporates under solar radiation, clouds of water vapour more over land areas; precipitation occurs as show, hail and rain over the land and water begins to flow back to the sea. Some of the water infiltrates into saturated ground zone beneath the water table water which infiltrates feeds surfaces plants life and some sets drain up into this vegetable where transpiration takes place from leaf, plant surfaces. The remaining water evaporates partially water runoffs into the river channels.


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This is an Undergraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


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