THE ROLE OF RATIO ANALYSIS IN BUSINESS DECISIONS (A CASE STUDY OF O. JACO BROS. ENT. (NIG.) LTD., ABA, ABIA STATE)


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ABSTRACT
          Accounting information provided by means of financial statements- The income statement and the Balance Sheet are often in summarized form.  Viewed on the surface, the truths about the results and the financial position of a business hidden in them remain veiled.  To be of optimal benefit and as well enable the users make well – informed decisions, financial statements need to be analyzed by means of ratios.  Therefore, in order to establish the role of ratio analysis in business decisions, this research is carried out, using O. Jaco Bros.  Ent. (Nig.) LTD., Aba Abia State as the Case study.  The researcher made use of both primary and secondary sources of data collection.  However, for the former, questionnaires were administered, whereas for the later, relevant were received.  The data Collected via the primary data sources were analyzed using simple averages and percentages. After ratios analysis conducted on the chapter four, mode at 95 level of confidence (5% level of significance).  Finally, it was established that ratios analysis evils business decision.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Dedication
Certification        
Acknowledgements
Table of Contents
Abstract
 CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1            Background Information        
1.2            Statement of Problem
1.3            Objectives of the Study
1.4            Research Question
1.5            Significance of the Study        
1.6            Scope of the Study       
1.7            Limitation of Study
1.8            Definition of Terms used in the Study
1.9            Brief Historical Background of O. Jaco Bros.
 Ent. (Nig.) Ltd, Aba, Abia State.

Reference

 

CHAPTER TWO


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1            Introduction        
2.2            Financial Statement Analysis
2.3            Parties Interested in Financial Statement Analysis       
2.4            Objectives of Financial Statement analysis
2.5            Sources of Information for financial
Statement Analysis
2.6            Tools and Techniques of Financial
Statement Analysis
2.7            Uses and Objectives of Ratio Analysis      
2.8            Types of Ratio Analysis
2.8.1    Univariate Ratio Analysis
2.8.2    Multivariate Ratio Analysis
2.9     Limitations of Ratio Analysis
Reference

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1     Introduction        
3.2            Research Design
3.3            Data Collection Technique
3.4            Population
3.5            Sample Size and Sampling Technique       
3.6            Instrument for Data Collection
3.7            Questionnaires Administration
Reference

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.1            Introduction
4.2            Data presentation and Analysis       
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1            Introduction
5.2            Summary and Discussion of Findings       
5.3            Recommendations        
5.4     Conclusion
Reference 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 
APPENDICES

            Appendix 1  Research Questionnaire to the
            Management and Staff of O. Jaco Bros. Ent.
            (Nig.) Ltd., Aba.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION


1.1            BACKGROUND INFORMATION
The two primary objectives of every business are profitability and solvency.  Profitability is the ability of a business to make profit, while solvency is the ability of a business to pay debts as they come due.  (Hermanson et al, 1992: 824).  However, the achievement of these objectives requires efficient management of resources of the business through planning, budgeting, forecasting, control, and decision – making.  Also, the strengths and weakness of the business need to be identified and necessary corrective measures applied.  Interestingly, accounting provides information that facilitates these functions.
          Basically, accounting measures and communicates economic information needed for decision –making.  Thus, the American Accounting Association (in Okezie, 2002:1) defined accounting as “the process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgments and decisions by the information”.  Statement and the Balance Sheet.  The Income Statement shows the profitability or  profitability or operational result of a business, while the balance sheet shows the solvency or financial position of a business.
          Although profiles are often used as the basis for judging the performance of a business, such profits must be related to the various items of the financial statements in order to be meaningful and useful for decision making. Furthermore, owing to the summarized nature of financial statements, a lot of truths are hidden in them. Thus, they need to the analyzed and interpreted by means of financial ratios to enable the users understand the meaning of the absolute amounts shown in them, and make informed business decisions.
          In this regard, Essien (2006:144) observed:
Financial statements carry lots of financial Information that are hidden in the figures. The figures in financial statements become more useful when they are related to each other or to some other relevant financial data. Therefore, users of financial information go a further step to establish relationships (or ratios) among selected data in financial statements.
          According to Igben (1999:423), “Accounting {or financial} ratio is a proportion or fraction or percentage expressing the relationship between one item in a set financial statements and another item in the financial statements. Accounting ratios are the most powerful of all tools used in analyzed and interpreting financial statements”. Therefore, ratio analysis involves taking stats of number (or items) out of financial statements and forming ratios with them, to enhance informed judgments and decisions (Lasher, 1997:66).
          MCShane et al. (2000:336) defined decision-making as “a conscious process of making choices among one or more alternatives with the interior of moving toward some desired state of affairs.” Therefore, business decisions can be defined as choices relating to the allocation and/or use of business resources to achieve business goals.
          Decision-making calls information. Bittel et al. (1984:340) observed: “Managers want information because they need to make decisions. The proper use of information is an important part of decision-making.” Remarkably, one of the effective ways of providing information needed for decision-making is ratio analysis.
          Yes, business dictions of make or buy, investment or divestment, expansion or contration, capital-organization and reconstruction, and so on cannot be properly made without the aid of financial ratios. They give cue to the financial strengths and weaknesses of a business, and highlight aspects of a business requiring further investigation.
          Therefore, this research is carried out to show ratio analysis help managers, shareholders, investors, creditors, and other stakeholders make informed judgments and decisions about the past performance, present condition, and futures potential of a business.
1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM                     
          Financial information provided in financial statements are useful in business decisions. However, it must be noted that financial statements are means to an and not an end in themselves. Thus the use of financial statements in decision-making is not always easy owing to the following problems:
1.       In view of the summarized nature of the information contained in financial statements, they need to be analyzed and interpreted by means of financial ratios to enable management and stakeholders understand them and make well-informed business decisions.
2.       Many users of financial statements are not knowledgeable about accounting ratios and how the ratios can be applied to financial statements to aid decision-making.
3.       Despite the immense benefits of ratio analysis, there are a lot of weaknesses or limitations associated with its use.
In view of the above stated problems, this research is embarked upon to identify the proper use of financial ratios, and the roles ratio analysis plays in business decisions. 


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