STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF STUDENT IN TERTIARY INSTITUTION (A CASE STUDY OF THE POLYTECHNIC IBADAN ADESEUN OGUNDOYIN CAMPUS ERUWA, HEALTH CENTRE)


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ABSTRACT
          This research work focus on health seeking behavior of student in tertiary institution using The polytechnic Ibadan, Adeseun Ogundoyin campus Eruwa as a case study. The researcher collected primary data by preparing questionnaire to elicit the response from the respondents (students). The response was coded and the required data were obtained.
          Statistical tools used was chi-square and “t” distribution to test whether the levels, religion and sex of the student and their health seeking bahaviour are independent or not.
          After careful examination of the health seeking bahaviour and health management of the students, it was discovered that the student perception about the school health center is a worrisome concern. It is therefore imperative that the school management should as a matter of urgency look into the school health centre in terms of procuring drugs and increasing in medical personnel.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE
1.0     Introduction
1.1.    Determinant of health
1.2.    Research Problem
1.3     Aims and objective
1.4.    Cope of the study
1.5     Limitation of the study
1.6     Sources of data
CHAPTER TWO
2.0     Literature Review
2.1     Statistical Conceptual knowledge
2.2     Basic principles of non parametric
2.3     Advantages of using non parametric
2.4     Disadvantages of using non parametric method
2.5     Nature of Chi-square
2.6     Observed Frequency
2.7     Expected frequency
2.8     Goodness of fit test
2.9     Contingency Table
2.10   Significant test
2.11   Hypothesis test
2.12   Assumption of Chi-Square
2.13   Application of Chi-square
2.14   Student T-Test
2.15 Historical background of the Health Centre

CHAPTER THREE
3.0     Research Design
3.1     Statistical tools adopted
3.2     Chi-square distribution (X2)
3.3     Observed frequency
3.4     Expected frequency
3.5     Degree of freedom
3.6     Level of significant
3.7     Test statistics
3.8     Decision rule
3.9     Meaning of hypothesis
3.10   Types of hypothesis
3.11   One failed and two failed test
3.12   Types of error
3.13   Data
3.14   Types of data
3.15   Methods of data collection
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0     Presentation and Analysis of data
4.1     Presentation of data
4.2     Sex/Health seeking behavior
4.3     Religion/health seeking behavior
4.4     Levels/health seeking behavior
4.5     Analysis of Sex/health seeking behavior
4.6     Conclusion
4.7     Religion/Health Seeking Behaviour
4.8     Conclusion
4.9     Level/Health seeking behavior
4.10   Conclusion
CAPTER FIVE
5.0     Findings, conclusion and recommendation
5.1     Findings
5.2     Conclusion
5.3     Recommendation
REFERENCES


CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
          Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living being. In human, it is the general condition of a person in mind, body and spirit, usually to being from illness, injury or pain (as in “good health” or “healthy”).
          The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Although this definition has been subjected to controversy, in particular as having a lack of operational value and the problem created by use of the word “complete”
          Classification systems such as the WHO family of international classification, which is composed of the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and the international classification of disease (ICD) are commonly used to defined and measure the components of health.
          The maintenance and promotion of health is achieved through different combination of physical, mental and social well being together sometimes referred to as the “Health Triangle” the WHO’s 1986 Ottawa charter for health promotion furthered that health is not just a state but also “a resource for everyday life”, not the objective of living but health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.
          Health is also the condition of organism which measures the degree of which its power are able to function properly. However, health is the quality of life that enable the individual to live best and to discharged his daily activities.
          The term “healthy” is also widely used in the context of many types of non-living organization and their imparts for the benefit of human, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy cities or healthy environment. In addition to health care interventions and a person’s surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health. Status of individuals including their backgrounds, lifestyle and economic and social conditions, these are refers to as, Determinant of health.
1.1     DETERMINANT OF HEALTH
          Generally, the context in which an individual lives is of great important to health status and quality of life, it is sincerely recognize that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but also through the effort and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individuals and society.
          According to the World Health Organization, the main determinant of health include, the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person, individual characteristic and behavior.
          The environment is cited as an important factors of influencing the health status of individual, this includes characteristic of the natural environment, but built environment and the social environment factor such as clean water and air, adequate housing, safe communities and good roads, all have been found to contribute to good health, especially the health of youth.
          Genetics, or inherited traits from parents, also plays a role in determining the health status of individuals. These can encompasses both the predisposition of certain diseases and health conditions, as well as the habits and behavior individuals develop through the lifestyle of their families. Genetics may play a role in the manner in which people cope with stress either mental, emotion or physical.
          Achieving and maintaining health is an ongoing process, shaped by both the evolution of health care knowledge and practices, as well as personal strategies and organized interventions. For staying healthy, people can improve their health via exercise enough sleep, maintaining in healthy body weight, limiting alcohol use and avoiding smoking.
          However, the action taken by the affected individuals depends on one’s active, passive and assisted observation about their health in their everyday life. Thus a person with a slight headache or with a warm temperature may quickly take immediate action by visiting nearest hospital, clinic or medicine shop for proper diagnosis or medication, whereas another person may hold casual view regarding treatment in using of drugs he either reason that sickness would soon leave him or better still, resort to self medication.
          Thus individual treatment seeking behavior for the treatment of illness will among other things include knowledge and duration of sickness and the patients judgment of the intensity of sickness.
          The situation becomes slightly modified when, in case of students in higher institution seek treatment of illness in the health centre of the institution or in the environment how or she is schooling. He/she seeks treatment based on the perception he has about the school health centre or through clinic in his surroundings.
          The more the health centre is equipped and the more alternative and friendly the medical personnel are, the likely will the students visit the health centre for regular medical check-up. Another twisted dimension to it is when the health centre is close for duty especially on weekends. The situation put students into looking for another alternative which often time could be self medication, traditional medicine or local herbs and even resort to doing nothing, if it is perceived that the duration of the sickness will not last long.
          With reference to all above expressed meaning of “Health” this paper addressed the perception of student of The Polytechnic Ibadan, Adeseun Ogundoyin Campus towards their health centre and efficiency of health centre on around as well as alternative therapy.
1.2     RESEARCH PROBLEMS
1.     This is to know whether the Sex, Religion, Level and health seeking behavior of students are independent or not.
2.     To know the rate of health seeking behavior of students in tertiary institution.
3.     To know the problem students are facing when seeking for medical help.


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