PRODUCT FAILUE: CAUSES AND EFFECTS (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY PLC)


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PROPOSAL
TOPIC:
Product Failure; Causes And Effects
(A Case Study Of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc)

CHAPTER ONE
          Many companies don’t just sell product they like, they first decide the need of consumer before creating such goods. Marketers know the first basic thing in determining a product success or failure is that one should foist consider consumer feelings about the intended product which the company wants to sell and also their feelings towards the company itself. Actually, the last thing that companies develop when, making products is the core benefits.
          For example, NBC sells more than one million worth of coca-cola, Fanta, Sprite etc. to consumer around the world. They make successful soft drink products and this has made them the leader in the popular price segment in the world.
HISTORICAL BA CKGROUND OF THE COMPANY
          The history of the company in Nigeria is almost as old as Nigeria itself. It is one of the earliest companies established in the country.
KEY WORDS AND TERMS
1.      Actual product: a product’s parts, quality level, features, design, brand name, package and other attributes combine to deliver core product benefits.
2.     Agitated product: is the additional consumer services and benefits build around the core and actual product. 
3.     Brand: is a name term, sign, symbol, or design or a combination of those intended to identify the goods and services of one seller in group of sellers and differentiate them from those of competitors.
4.     Business analysis: is a review of the sales, cost and profit projections for a new product to find out whether these factors satisfy company’s objectives.
5.     Commercialization: This is a process of introducing a new product into the market.
DEFINITION OF PRODUCT
          A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention acquisition, use or consumption and that might satisfy a want or need. Products include more than just tangible goods. Broadly defined, product include physical objects, services, persons, places, organization ideas, or mixes of these entitles.
LEVELS OR COMPONENTS OF A PRODUCT
          Product planners need t o think about the product on three levels. The most basic level in the core product, which addresses the question; What is the buyer really buying?
PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION
          Marketers have developed several product classification schemes in developing marketing strategies for their products and services into two broad classes based on types of consumers that use them. Consumer products ans industrial products.

CONSUMER PRODUCT
          These are those bought by final consumer for personal consumption. Marketers, based on how consumers go about buying them further classify those goods.
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
          These are those products purchased for further processing or for use in conduction a business.
PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES
          Developing a product involves the benefits that the product will offer. These benefits are communicated and delivered by product attributes such as quality, feature and design. Decisions about these attributes greatly affect consumer reactions to a product.
PRODUCT QUALITY
          Quality is one of the marketers major positioning tools. Quality has two decisions. Level and consistency. In developing a product the marketer must first choose a quality  level that will support the product’s position in the target market.
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
          Looking closely at the topic of the research, product failures; causes and effects a need therefore arises to firstly state and explain processes which a product undergoes both for new product and already existing product.
PRODUCT DESIGN
          One of the best ways to add consumer value is through distinctive product design.
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE STRATEGIES
          Products, like people, have certain length of life during which they pass through certain identifiable stages. From the time a product idea is conceived, during its development and up to its market introduction.
INTRODUCTION STAGE
          The introduction stage starts when the product is first launched. Introduction takes time and sales growth is apportioned to be low.
GROWTH STAGE
          Should the new product satisfy the market, it will enter the growth stage, in which sales will start climbing quickly, and if not then could be said to be the end  of the new product.
MATURITY STAGE
          At a particular point a product’s sales growth will slow down and the product will enter a maturity state. This stage normally lasts longer than the previous stages and its poses strong challenges to marketing management.
DECLINE STAGE
          The decline is a situation in which sales may plunge to Zero, or they may drop to low level where they continue for many years.


PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
          By now product we mean original products, product improvement, product modification and new brands that the firm develops through its own research and development efforts.
REASPONS FOR PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
1.     Profit improvement: the management may decide to improve profit, improved product will surely lead to higher profit through bringing more consumers in to product’s consumption fold. 
2.     Technological change: the changing phase of technology is usually  accompany with minor or major improvement in an existing product. This usually result in the introduction of new product, e.g. computers replacing calculators and adding machines.
3.     Planned obsolescent: management may deliberately introduce an improvement of an existing product into the market to make such product outdated.
THE NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 
          The new product development process for finding and growing nor products consists of eight major steps.
1.     Idea Generation
2.     Idea Screening
3.     Concept Development
4.     Marketing Strategy Development
5.     Business Analysis
6.     Product Development
7.     Test Marketing
8.     Commercialization
PRICING APPROACH
          The price company charges will be determined by both internal and external factors.
THE BUYERS DECISION PROCESS
          The process is divided into five phase or stages, which are summarize below: 
1.     Need Recognition
2.     Information  
3.     Evaluation of Alternatives
4.     Purchase Decision
5.     Post-Purchase Decision
TYPES OF BUYING DECISION BAHAVIOR
1.     Complex buying behavior
2.     Dissonance reducing buying behavior
3.     Habitual buying behavior
4.     Variety seeking buying behavior
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
          Methodology involves the process that is used in the gathering of data. Data collection can be carried out by using primary and secondary data. Secondary data consist of information that already exists somewhere, having been collected for another purpose.
PLANNING PRIMARY DATA COLLECTING
          Designing a place for primary data collection call for decisions on the following
1.     Research Approach
2.     Distributing Questionnaire
3.     Sample Size
4.     Research Instrument
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
          The data collected from the respondents are arranged and presented in a way as to facilitate easy understanding and implementation by management and others users that may have need of it.
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
          Different researches have investigated the rate of failure associated with products. In product development and marketing, it is essential for companies to ensure that every aspect of their product are well design not only to meet consumers expectations but also to delight the consumer.
RECOMMENDATIONS
          One of the recommendations that we wish to give is that, the company when planning the development of any product, should ensure that proper marketing research is carried out so as to ensure that success of the product and also ensure “Total Quality Management” is maintained as all level or stages of its operation.
CONCLUSION
          This w rite-up as stated the meaning of a product, classifications of product, process involved in product development and the product life cycle.
          The research has carefully examined the reasons for products failure and for Fanta Company’s failure. In this we have seen that having a product idea for a product is just the starting point for the product and that many pother factors needs to be continued before and after the product emergence in to the market.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
·        Title
·        Certification        
·        Dedication
·        Acknowledgement
·        Proposal
·        Table of content

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     Introduction
1.1.    Historical background of the company
1.2     Product Manufacturer
1.3     Key words and terms
1.4     Definition of a product
1.5     Levels of components of a product
1.6     Product Classification
1.7     Product attribute
1.8     Product quality
CHAPTER TWO
2.0     Product design
2.1     Product life cycle strategies
2.1.1 Introduction stage
2.1.2 Growth stage
2.1.3  Maturity stage
2.1.4 Decline stage
2.1.5  Product development
2.2     Reasons for product development
2.3     The new product development process
2.4     Pricing approaches
2.5     The buyer decision process
2.6     Types of buying decision behavior

CHAPTER THREE
3.0     Planning primary Data collection
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0     Data presentation and analysis.
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0     Summary Of Findings
5.1     Recommendations
5.2     Conclusion
APPENDIX
BIBLIOGRAPHY
QUESTIONNAIRE


CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
          Many companies don’t just sell product they like, they first decide the need of consumer before creating such goods. Marketers know the first basic thing in determining a product success or failure is that one should foist consider consumer feelings about the intended product which the company wants to sell and also their feelings towards the company itself. Actually, the last thing that companies develop when, making products is the core benefits.
          For example, NBC sells more than one million worth of coca-cola, Fanta,  Sprite etc. to consumer around the world. They make successful soft drink products and this has made them the leader in the popular price segment in the world. It knows that sells more than liquid fluid and that it sells what this can do for consumers.
          In accomplishing this objective, after deciding consumers feelings, it then develop and test the soft drink concepts that matches peoples consumer value, desires and lifestyles. After this, appropriate brand name to fit the idea chosen. This is one of the basic aspects of product attribute and with this comes the packaging of such product. The package attribute contain the product concept and image.
          After this, the product is introduced into the market and this is the first stage in which a product can either succeed or fail. Some products do make it beyond the introductory stage and goes to the other stage in a product life cycle. While some might make through this stage, its death comes in the next stage, where I t faces more competition. For various reason, many products fail to achieve the objective of a product, which is satisfying a want or need.
          Therefore, through the course of this project, we should be able to see various events that occur before and after a product’s introduction to the market, various causes for product’s failure and recommendation on how such incidence can be avoided.

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